ETI Integration - Energy Transportation Information Networks Integration

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Sustainable development concerns the continued existence of humankind and its civilizations, and is the top priority facing the international community. Over the span of nearly two centuries since the Industrial Revolution, productivity has grown by leaps and bounds and human society has made unprecedentedly enormous strides—yet it has been at the expense of depleting natural resources and damaging the ecological environment. Such a path of development has eaten away at our future generations’ prospects for growth and posed threats to our energy, economy, society, and environment, leading humankind to a crossroads of life and death. No longer able to delay action or bypass the crisis, countries around the world have worked hard blazing a new trail of sustainable development. At the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the 2030 Agenda for short) set out 17 Sustainable Development Goals, providing a sustainable development action guide for the international community. Over the past few years, implementation of the 2030 Agenda has made encouraging progress, but confronted daunting challenges at the same time. Identifying a path for development that can accomplish the goals of sustainability more quickly and effectively is now the paramount task facing every country in the world. Energy is a crucial material basis sustaining human society, and therefore exerts profound and wide-reaching influence across multiple areas of sustainable development—including economy, society, and environment. However, the current energy structure with fossil fuels playing the main role has not only proved to be unsustainable, but also become a key barrier to sustainable human development. This makes the need to accelerate transition to green, low-carbon energies ever more pressing. At the UN Sustainable Development Summit held on September 26, 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed Global Energy Interconnection (GEI) as a means to accelerate the energy transition, responding to global challenges with a Chinese approach to sustainable human development. His proposal has been met with high praise and a broad response from the global community. As the UN Secretary-General Guterres puts it, GEI is central to achieving sustainable human development and inclusive global growth. GEI is an important platform for the large-scale global exploitation, transmission, and utilization of clean energy, and a modern energy system featuring clean energy, electricity generation, and interconnection. GEI takes energy transition as the link connecting roads of reform, green, prosperity, and harmony for sustainable development. The road of reform aims to realize: the transition from fossil fuels to clean energy in energy production, from local to transnational balancing, to transcontinental and global deployments in energy allocation, and from coal, oil, and gas to electricity in energy consumption—all to achieve a fundamental, clean, low-carbon energy transition. The road of green aims to: make significant cuts to emissions of greenhouse gases (such as CO2) and other various pollutants resulting from fossil fuel consumption, accomplish climate change targets, give the ecological environment a complete makeover, strike a balance between energy development and environmental protection, and achieve coexistence between humankind and nature. The road of prosperity aims to: make innovative breakthroughs in technology, materials, equipment, and commercial models, boost global infrastructure upgrading, create a wealth of new jobs and investment opportunities, and inject strong momentum into global economic growth. The road of harmony aims to: realize energy transformation from fossil fuel competition to clean energy sharing and humanity-wide cooperation, strengthen political trust among countries of the world, decrease international and regional conflict, enhance South-South and South-North cooperation, and strengthen the cause of world peace. In March 2016, GEIDCO was founded with the vision of building an international cooperation platform encouraging extensive consultation, joint contribution, shared benefits, and win-win results. Since its inception, GEIDCO has done significant work on GEI—from concept promotion, to planning and research, to international cooperation and project implementation—all to facilitate the GEI’s transition from a concept proposed by China into tangible actions actively participated in by countries around the world. GEIDCO has also made a big push to advance research and practice on GEI’s role in promoting sustainable development. In November 2017, GEIDCO held a High-Level UN Symposium with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) at the UN headquarters and released the Global Energy Interconnection Action Plan to Promote the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development . Since then GEIDCO has released additional research results at important UN conferences, including action plans for the Paris Agreement , global environmental governance, power access, and issues of poverty and health. Building on a summary of GEIDCO’s activity and achievements over the years, we have conducted in-depth research on sustainable development-related issues and compiled this into a book. This volume takes stock of GEI’s role in holistically promoting the 17 SDGs of the 2030 Agenda , works out specific roadmaps for each goal, and provides new ideas and approaches for the overall implementation of the 2030 Agenda . The book is divided into six chapters: Chapter I tackles the major challenges confronting sustainable human development, reviews progress according to the 2030 Agenda , and provides some insights and solutions regarding difficulties arising in the process of implementation. Chapter II analyzes the overall role of energy in sustainable human development, examines the definition of Global Energy Interconnection and GEI’s great importance in promoting the global energy transition, providing a roadmap for future GEI development. Chapter III provides a well-organized account of the content and status of the 17 SDGs set out in the 2030 Agenda , expounds the value of GEI for the implementation of each SDG_x000c_ from the 51 different aspects, and demonstrates the important role of GEI in promoting sustainable human development. Chapter IV proposes the ten major GEI actions for overall advancement of the 2030 Agenda —including concept promotion, clean development and universal access to electricity—thereby offering a plan of action for global sustainable development. Chapter V presents the six mechanisms of cooperation—covering GEI planning, construction, operations, technical standards, and other aspects to guide countries worldwide to create a favorable environment for the joint promotion of GEI. Chapter VI envisions GEI’s ambitious blueprint for a future of sustainability in energy, economic, social, and environmental development. This book can provide reference, guidance, and support to the UN and various national governments in policymaking and planning, to enterprises and institutions taking part in GEI research and development, and to the general public, for enhancing awareness and gaining insight into GEI and related matters. Building GEI is in the interests of people and nations worldwide; its success will require a concerted effort. We are looking forward to working together with the global community to advance GEI development and create a brighter future for humankind!

Table of Contents

1 Overview of Network Infrastructure Development?001
1.1 General Overview?002
1.1.1 Main Categories?002
1.1.2 Components?005
1.1.3 Basic Characteristics?008
1.1.4 Main Features?009
1.2 Key Roles?012
1.2.1 Foundation for Social Development?012
1.2.2 Engine of Economic Growth?013
1.2.3 Impetus for High-quality Development?013
1.2.4 Key to Sustainable Development?015
1.3 Current Challenges?016
1.3.1 Resource Sharing?016
1.3.2 Balanced Development?017
1.3.3 Planning and Coordination?018
1.3.4 Network Efficiency?018
1.3.5 Network Safety Assurance?020
1.3.6 Environmental Protection?022
1.3.7 Technical Standards?023
1.3.8 Policy Mechanisms?023
1.4 Development Trends?024
1.4.1 Wide-area Coverage?024
1.4.2 Digitalization?025
1.4.3 Intelligentization?025
1.4.4 High Efficiency?027
1.4.5 Friendliness?028
1.4.6 Integration?029
1.5 Summary?030
2 Current Status and Development Trends of ETI Networks?031
2.1 Energy Network?032
2.1.1 Overview?032
2.1.2 Coal?035
2.1.3 Oil?044
2.1.4 Natural Gas?058
2.1.5 Electricity?068
2.1.6 Global Energy Interconnection?078
2.2 Transportation Network?095
2.2.1 Development History?096
2.2.2 Current Development Status?099
2.2.3 Global Transportation Interconnection?111
2.3 Information Network?119
2.3.1 Development History?119
2.3.2 Current Development Status?124
2.3.3 Global Information Interconnection?132
2.4 Summary?138
3 Theory and Models of ETI Integration?139
3.1 ETI Networks’ Direction of Development?140
3.2 Theoretical Foundations of ETI Integration?143
3.2.1 Definition of ETI Integration?143
3.2.2 Main ETI Network Structures?144
3.2.3 Five-layer Integrated Model?147
3.3 Models of ETI Integration?149
3.3.1 Energy Integration?149
3.3.2 Infrastructure Integration?150
3.3.3 Data Integration?152
3.3.4 Operation Integration?154
3.3.5 Industry Integration?156
3.4 Driving Forces of ETI Integration?158
3.4.1 Reform?158
3.4.2 Innovation?160
3.4.3 Efficiency?161
3.4.4 Policy?163
3.5 Summary?167
4 Paradigms and Development Paths of ETI Integration?169
4.1 Major Paradigms of ETI Integration?170
4.2 Application Scenarios of ETI Integration?172
4.2.1 Integrated Urban Utility Tunnel?172
4.2.2 Multi-station Integration?174
4.2.3 Shared Posts and Towers?177
4.2.4 Smart Grid?181
4.2.5 Power Information Fusion?187
4.2.6 Green Energy Data Centers?190
4.2.7 Electric Transportation?191
4.2.8 Hydrogen-powered Transportation?199
4.2.9 PV Highways?205
4.2.10 Smart Transportation?207
4.2.11 “Power ” Integrated Service Platform?214
4.2.12 Sea-air Hubs of ETI Integration?215
4.3 The Development Path of ETI Integration?220
4.3.1 Urban ETI Integration?220
4.3.2 National ETI Integration?227
4.3.3 Transnational ETI Integration?229
4.4 Summary?232
5 ETI Integration Technology and Mechanism Innovation?233
5.1 Innovation?234
5.1.1 Technological Innovation?234
5.1.2 Mechanism Innovation?235
5.2 Key ETI Integration Technologies?236
5.2.1 Energy Storage Technology?236
5.2.2 Electric Transportation?238
5.2.3 Hydrogen-powered Transportation?240
5.2.4 Maglev Transportation?241
5.2.5 Wireless Charging?243
5.2.6 Power Routers?246
5.2.7 Artificial Intelligence?248
5.2.8 Big Data?249
5.2.9 The Internet of Vehicles?251
5.2.10 Unmanned Driving?253
5.3 Innovation of Mechanisms for ETI Integration?256
5.3.1 Planning and Coordination?257
5.3.2 Construction and Operation?259
5.3.3 Financial Investment?260
5.3.4 Alignment of Standards?262
5.3.5 Policy Guarantees?263
5.3.6 International Cooperation?265
5.4 Summary?266
6 ETI Integration to Create a Better World?267
6.1 A Seismic Shift in Industrial Development?268
6.2 Rapid Global Economic Development?270
6.3 Notable Ecological/Environmental Improvements?272
6.4 Appreciable Improvements in Standards of Living?274
6.5 An Astonishing Step for Human Civilization?275
6.6 Summary?277

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ETI Integration - Energy Transportation Information Networks Integration