Wood Construction South of the Yangtze

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The author of this book relied on field study and documents as basic methods of research, including over ten years of travel through the region south of the Yangtze. He investigated successive generations of wood constructions, trying in the context of a new cultural history to capture the original appearance of wood constructions south of the Yangtze.
This book includes a range of traditional architecture, and the technology and culture behind its creation. The rich selection of wood constructions includes various kinds of temples, palaces, balconies,and the social hierarchy's top-tier buildings. Of course,it also includes houses of common folk, workshops,and pedestrian bridges. Wood constructions south of the Yangtze, its construction, development, and overall history, form the essence of this book. In it, we explore the technological origins of its construction in the North and the problems facing its evolution.
Table of Contents
ChapterⅠ:Introduction /1
1. The Definition of "South of the Yangtze" and Its Geographical Environment /4
2. The "South of the Yangtze" in Ancient China's Legendary History /8
3. Wood Construction Technology South of the Yangtze /11
4. The Research Content, Objective,and Methods /20

ChapterⅡ:The Social Backgrounds of the Emergence of Wood Construction Technology/27
1. The Belief in Birds, Ritual and Worship South of the Yangtze/29
2. From Rice Paddies to a "Bird-Culture" /31
3. The Form of Rice Cultivation/34

ChapterⅢ:The Bionic Origin of Wood Construction Technology South of the Yangtze/39
1. The Bird Nest Inspiration/41
2. The Structure and Construction of Bird Nests/45
3. From"Nest-Dwelling" to Early Railing-type Construction/48
4. The Inspiration of the Animals Skeleton——The Emergence of Railing-type Building/53

ChapterⅣ:The Mature Period of Pile Buildings——the Hemudu Architectural Culture in Yuyao /57
1. The Henmdu Settlement Site of Pile Type Construction in Yuyao /60
2. The Wood Construction Technology Reflected in the Pile Buildings at the Hemudu Ruins /62
3. The Mortise-Tenon Technology Applied in the Pile Building /65
4. The Processing Tools and Technologies of Wood Components/67
5. The Weaving Technologies in Architecture /73

ChapterⅤ:Three Major Systems of Pile Dwelling Wood Construction /77
1. The Definition of Pile Construction and Its Classification/80
2. Wood Construction Structures Emerged from Pile Dwellings/86
3. The Formation of Column and Tie Construction/91
4. The Supporting Wall of Well and the Log-cabin Construction/92
5. The Origin and Development of Mortise-Tenon Technology/101

ChapterⅥ:Early Wood Constructions South of the Yangtze /117
1. The Wood Construction from Liangzhu Culture to the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties/119
2. The Remains of Constructions South of the Yangtze in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period/139
3. Historical and Cultural Background of the Qin and Han Dynasties/152
4. The Formation and Development of Wood Construction in the Han Dynasty Era South of the Yangtze/162

ChapterⅦ:Wood Constructions South of the Yangtze from the Period of Six Dynasties to the Northern Song and the Southern Song Dynasties /177
1. The Wood Constructions in the Period of the Six Dynasties/179
2. The Characteristics of Wood Construction in the Period of the Sui and the Tang Dynasties/199
3. Wood Constructions in the Period of the Five Dynasties and the Northern Song and the Southern Song Dynasties/207
4. Wood Construction Bridges South of the Yangtze/233

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Sample pages of Wood Construction South of the Yangtze (ISBN:9787313058485)
C. The Integrative Concept
The contemporary philosopher REN Jiyu once said: "Culture is not something that dies, it has life and vigor, in possession of openness and in- clusiveness, different cultures will harmoniously blend when they meet. The surface-level components of living culture(such as clothes, food, tools) are easily absorbed by each other while the deeper levels and concepts (such as philosophical systems, ideas about value and ways of thinking) cannot be revealed at first sight and can only possibly blend when there is a deep cul- tural foundation and cultural attainment. This type of high-level integration can only take place among great nationalities with a solid cultural basis."
Chinese ancient architectural styles were formed by the integration of different architectural features all over China through the process of trade, immigration, and wars between clans and ethnic groups. The influence from external nationalities such as Ancient India and Greece should be in- cluded in such integration as well. The integrative concept in architecture is easily formed in China since the nation was essentially shaped by an amal- gamation of nationalities. The evolution and finalization of an established set was the result of the integration of architectural cultures in the north and the south. The birth of Chinese-styled stupas was an example of high-level integration——the fusion of ancient Chinese and Indian cultures that resulted in the emergence of Buddhist architectural culture in China.
During research on the historical evolvement of ancient Chinese ar- chitecture, an ignorance of the integrative concept will result in a failure to grasp essential points. "Architectural integration" simply is reality.
In conclusion, ancient Chinese wood construction originated through a process of " bionic architecture," developed through " architectural evolution" and improved by means of "architectural integration." These three architectural mechanisms are not independent of each other but often overlap. For example, "architectural integration," a reaction of architec- ture meeting the demands of different cultural environments can also be taken as a special kind of evolution and "architectural evolution" can be promoted by the theory of " bionic architecture." Therefore, the development of ancient Chinese wood construction was jointly affected by the above-mentioned mechanisms. So was the wood construction technology south of the Yangtze.
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