Confucian Temples South of the Tangtze

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About Author
张亚祥,Born in 1965, Mr. ZHANG Ya xiang graduated from Shandong Institute of Architecture and Engineering in1988 and got a bachelor's degree in interior design. After graduation, he was engaged in architectural design at Dong ying Institute of Architectural Design. In 1998, he graduated from the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tong ji University, and got a master's degree in architectural history and theory. Now, he is the manager of Shandong Fidelity Construction Planning and Design Company, and a registered architect at the national level.
Table of Contents
Chapter I : Historical Origins /1
South of the Yangtze/3
Sage Confucius/4
Confucius Temple in Qufu/6
Confucian Temples of South Sect/15
Capital Confucian Temples/18
Local Confucian Temples/27
College Confucian Temples/41
Confucian Temples South of the Yangtze/44

Chapter II : Shape and Structure of Buildings /53
Shape and Structure of Confucian Temples/55
Shape and Structure of Study Palace/66
Layout of Temple School/71
Symbolic Buildings/78
Geomantic Buildings/94

Chapter III: Decline and Renaissance/107
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom/109
Abolition of Imperial Examination/112
Successive Years of War/115
Reconstruction of Old City/117
Renaissance of Confucianism/119

Chapter IV: Existing Selected Quintessence /129
Confucian Temple in Suzhou/131
Chaotian Palace in Nanjing/148
Confucian Temple in Cicheng County/157
Fuzi(Confucian) Temple in Nanjing/173
Confucian Temple in Jiading/188
Confucian Temple in Shanghai/201
Confucian Temple in Jiangyin/210
Confucian Temple in Chongrrting/218
Confucian Temple in Chongde/226
Confucian Temple in Wujiang/230
Other Remains/233

Chapter V: Ceremony of Offering Sacrifices to Confucius/239
Historical Origins/241
Sacrificial Utensils and Music Instruments/251
Music and Dance/258
Sacrificial Writing and Carol/265
Ritual for Sacrifices/268
Offering Sacrifices to Confucius in Modem Times/271
Sample Pages Preview
Owing to the promotion of tourism, some Confucian Temples with along history in the south of the Yangtze, such as Fuzi Temple in Nanjing, Confucian Temple in Shanghai, Confucian Temple in Jiading, ConfucianTemple in Jiangyin, and others, were renovated and opened to public over a decade ago. But the Confucian Temples, Study Palaces and the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius still remain strange and unknown to most visitors. They do not know that Confucian Temples existed in every county and city across the country as early as over 100 years ago. For some reasons, the study on government-run schools, Confucian Temples, in ancient China is almost in a blank state, and even college students who have studied the history of Chinese architecture have little knowledge of the structure of Confucian Temples, let alone the common public.

In September 2005, the Chinese Government held a global ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius with the main venue at the Confucius Temple in Qufu,Shandong Province. The grand ceremony was televised live by CCTV and it could be seen in most parts of the world. Confucius Temple and the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius have been made well known. The event also showed that the Government had changed its attitude to the elite of traditional Chinese culture and recognized Confucianism. The ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius,which had been abolished for over half a century in mainland China,has begun to resume. The Government has attached great importance to the Confucian Temples remaining in various parts of the country,many of which have been renovated or reconstructed.

Confucius Temple, also called Confucian Temple that was built in other parts of the country, plays an important role in the history of ancient architecture in China. Confucius Temple in Qufu is one of the three major ancient architectural complexes existing in China. The size and structure of local Confucian Temples follow the pattern of Confucius Temple in Qufu. They not only serve as the temples for offering sacrifices to Confucius, but also as schools run by local government. They are large in number and exist throughout the country. During 1,300 years of development,  various styles of Confucian Temples with distinctive local characteristics have emerged all over the country. Confucian Temples south of the Yangtze, as one of the outstanding representatives, were built in the early times, with high building standards, and are in a well preserved condition.
This book has made textual research and analysis of Confucian Temples south of the Yangtze with respect to historical origin, architectural shapes and slructures, decline and renaissance, the existing situation and the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius, with the purpose of protecting Confucian Temples and providing some basic data for updated research.
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Confucian Temples South of the Tangtze