Design of Deep Braced Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment

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This book presents basic design theories and principles and provides detailed analysis for excavation failure cases based on the author's research experience, aiming to provide a comprehensive picture of the subject matter. It focuses on the basal heave stability analysis, the apparent earth pressure as well as the strut force determination, the retaining wall deflection, the ground settlement, the protection measures such as jet grouting slabs or piles, case reports, back analysis methodology From the very basic to the most advanced, it tries to attain theoretical rigorousness and consistency.On the other hand, this book also tries to cope with design practice, implemented by the recent publications from the authors. Students, researchers, and design engineers working in the field of civil engineering could benefit from this book.
Table of Contents
1 Overview
1.1 Geological Investigation and Soil Tests
1.2 Conditions of Ground and the Adjacent Properties
1.3 Design Criteria
1.4 Types of Excavation Support Systems
1.5 Auxiliary Methods and Protection of Neighboring Properties
1.6 Instrumentations and Monitoring System
1.7 Organization of this Book

2 Basal Heave Stability
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of Factors of Safety
2.3 Review of the Limit Equilibrium Method
2.4 Review of Upper Bound Method
2.4.1 Basic Theory
2.4.2 Upper Bound Method for the Terzaghi and Prandtl Failure Model
2.4.3 Multi-block Upper Bound Method
2.5 Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Basal Heave Stability for Excavation in Spatial Variable Soils
2.5.1 Shear Strength Reduction Technique
2.5.2 Numerical Schemes
2.5.3 Simulation Results
2.5.4 Reliability Analysis
2.5.5 Summary
2.6 Evaluation of Basal Heave Stability of Braced Excavations in Anisotropic Clay
2.6.1 Soil Anisotropic Constitutive Model
2.6.2 Numerical Modeling...... ,
2.6.3 Computed Results and Analyses
2.6.4 Estimation of FS
2.6.5 Validation of the Predictive Model
2.6.6 Summary

3 Lateral Earth Pressure and Strut Forces
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Review of Conventional Earth Pressure Theory
3.2.1 Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest
3.2.2 Rankine's Earth Pressure Theory
3.2.3 Coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory
3.2.4 Comparison and Summary
3.3 APD for Different Soils and Retaining Systems
3.3.1 ADP Determination for Braced Excavation in Clays
3.3.2 ADP Determination for Braced Excavation in Sands
3.3.3 Summary and Conclusions
3.4 ADP for Braced Excavation in Anisotropic Clay
3.4.1 Finite-Element Modeling
3.4.2 Results and Analyses
3.4.3 Summary and Conclusions

4 Retaining Wall Deflection
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Triggering Factors
4.2.1 Excavation in Front of the Wall
4.3 Wall Deflections Induced by Deep Braced Excavation
4.3.1 Empirical Methods
4.3.2 Finite Element Method
4.3.3 Beam on Elastic Foundation Method
4.4 Surrogate Models for Maximum Retaining Wall
4.4.1 A Simple Ptediction Model (2D)
4.4.2 A Simple Prediction Model (3D)
4.4.3 A Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines(MARS) Model
4.5 Predictive Models for Wall Deflection Profiles
4.5.1 Case Histories
4.5.2 MARS Modeling
4.5.3 Model Validations
4.6 Predictive Models for Wall Deflection Envelope
4.6.1 Numerical Modeling Results
4.6.2 MARS Surrogate Model
4.6.3 Case Validations
4.7 Estimation of Wall Deflections in Anisotropic Clays
5 Ground Settlements and Dewatering
6 Probabilistic Analysis on Excavation Responses
7 0ne-Strut Failure Analysis
8 Jet Grouting Slabs and Jet Grouting Piles
9 Protection of Adjacent Infrastructures
10 Case Reports and Back Analysis
11 Excavation Failure Cases and Analysis
Appendix: Database of Propped and Anchored Deep Excavation
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Sample pages of Design of Deep Braced  Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment (ISBN:9787030699121)
Sample pages of Design of Deep Braced  Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment (ISBN:9787030699121)
Sample pages of Design of Deep Braced  Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment (ISBN:9787030699121)
Sample pages of Design of Deep Braced  Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment (ISBN:9787030699121)
Deep excavation is a crucial phase in the construction of superstructures and under-ground transportation system. In the congested urban area, the construction of braced excavation needs to ensure not only the stability of excavation itself, but also the integrity and serviceability of surrounding buildings. It has become the mainstream of deep braced excavation to design and construct with inspection of the induced deformation.
Incautious deep braced excavation can induce excessive soil displacement and consequent subsidence or uneven settlement of ground facilities behind the wall.Such deformation problems and control measures have been widely reported. The discussions of abundant completed projects can provide engineers guidance to raise more reliable designs and appropriate schemes for deep excavations. For deep exca-vations in soft soils, the matters of poor design and the consequent large defor-mation problem still exist due to the incomprehensible understanding of the soils' natural mechanical properties. Empirical observations or simulations using numer-ical methods such as finite-element or finite-difference procedures have been widely adopted to present excavation-induced displacement prediction. However, the design of deep excavation as well as the earth retaining system should comprise of the use of different methods such as the empirical methods, the observational approaches, the numerical simulation, the probabilistic and inverse analysis, the case report, and failure case analysis.
This book covers the scopes and methods mentioned above, including the basic flow chart for excavation design and construction; the basal heave stability check;estimation of excavation responses including the retaining wall deflection, ground surface settlement, as well as the strut forces; the reliability analysis and back anal-ysis; effect of excavation on adjacent infrastructures and some protection measures;
failure case reports; and causal analysis. It tries to cope with design practice, implemented via the recent publications from the authors in reputable journals.
This book comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 overviews the relevant topics.
Chapter 2 provides the overall stability analysis, in which the strength reduction technique was adopted for the calculation of factor of safety against basal heave.
Chapter 3 presents the determination of the lateral earth pressure as well as the strut forces. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the estimation ofthe retaining wall defiection andthe ground surface settlements, respectively. Chapter 6 gives probabilistic analysis on excavation responses while Chap. 7 performs the analysis about one-strut failure, which directly triggers the Nicoll Highway collapse in Singapore and Xianghu Metro Station collapse in Hangzhou. Chapter 8 focuses on the jet grouting slabs and jet grouting piles as ground improvements for the control of ground deforma-tion. Chapter 9 shows the protection of adjacent infrastructures. Chapter 10 provides the case reports and back analysis while Chapter 11 summarizes some excavation failures worldwide.
I am pleased to witness the publication of this book and hope that the authors would bring us more findings in deep excavation and earth retaining system design when they reprint it.
Design of Deep Braced Excavation and Earth Retaining Systems Under Complex Built Environment