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Key Concepts in Chinese Traditional Sports

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Table of Contents

中国传统体育思想文化 Philosophy of Sports 1

1 天行健, 君子以自强不息

Just as the Universe Maintains Vigor Through Movement, a Man of Virtue Should Constantly Strive for Self-perfection.…………3

2 阴阳

Yin and Yang…………4

3 太极

Taiji (The Supreme Ultimate)…………5

4 尚武崇德

Martial Prowess and Ethics…………7

5 仁者如射

A Benevolent Person Is Like an Archer.…………8

6 身体强良, 思虑徇通

Physically Strong and Mentally Nimble…………9

7 养生贵在动

Movement Is the Key to Preserving Health.…………10

8 形劳而不倦

Engaged yet Not Exhausted…………11

9 动以养形, 静以养神

Maintain the Body Through Movement and the Mind Through Stillness………12

10 形神合一

Unity of Body and Mind…………13

11 爱气养神

Cherish the Qi and Conserve the Mind…………14

12 怀道抱一

Observe Dao and Keep Unity…………15

13 以静制动, 动静有适

Control Movement with Stillness and Balance the Two…………16

14 全身保性

Preserve One's Life…………17

15 行气

Xingqi (Circulate the Vital Force)…………18

16 导引

Daoyin (Guide and Stretch)…………19

17 坐忘

Zuowang (Forget the Difference and Opposition Between Self and the Universe)…………21

18 纳气以凝精, 保气以炼形

Absorb Qi to Condense Vital Energy; Conserve Qi to Temper the Body…………22

19 旧力略过, 新力未发

Old Force Is Nearly Over and New Force Is Yet to Come.…………23

 

中国传统体育健身文化 Health and Sports 25

20 站桩功

Zhanzhuang Gong (Standing Stake Technique)…………27

21 吐纳功

Tu'na Gong (Exhaling and Inhaling)…………28

22 六字诀

Six-word Formula…………29

23 五禽戏

Wuqin Xi (Five-animal Exercise)…………30

24 八段锦

Baduanjin (Eight-section Brocade)…………31

25 易筋经

Yijin Jing (Muscle-tendon Change Classic)…………33

26 太极拳

Taiji Quan (Tai Chi)…………34

27 推手

Tuishou (Pushing Hands)…………36

28 形意拳

Xingyi Quan (Shape-Will Fist / Form-Intention Fist)…………36

29 长拳

Chang Quan (Long Fist)…………38

30 八卦掌

Bagua Zhang (Eight-trigram Palm)…………39

31 通背拳

Tongbei Quan (Back-through Boxing / Arm Boxing)…………40

32 螳螂拳

Tanglang Quan (Mantis Fist)…………41

33 猴拳

Hou Quan (Monkey Fist)…………42

34 醉拳

Zui Quan (Drunken Fist / Drunken Boxing)…………43

35 刀

Dao (Single-edged Sword)…………44

36 枪

Qiang (Spear)…………46

37 剑

Jian (Double-edged Sword)…………47

38 棍

Gun (Staff)…………49

39 掌旋球

Balls-in-palm (Meditation Balls / Exercise Balls)…………50

 

中国传统体育娱乐文化 Entertainment and Sports 53

40 舞龙

Dragon Dance…………55

41 舞狮

Lion Dance …………56

42 风筝

Kite (Fengzheng)…………58

43 麻将

Mahjong…………59

44 拔河

Tug of War…………60

45 空竹

Chinese Yo-yo (Diabolo)…………61

46 踢毽子

Jianzi (Shuttlecock) Kicking…………63

47 冰嬉

Ice Activities…………64

48 爬竿

Pole Climbing…………65

49 投石

Stone Hurling…………66

50 击壤

Jirang (Striking Wood)…………68

51 投绣球

Throwing Xiuqiu…………69

52 花样跳绳

Artistic Jump Rope…………70

53 骑竹马

Bamboo Horse Riding…………71

54 跳山羊

Goat Jumping (Leapfrog)…………73

55 霸王鞭舞

Rattle Stick Dance…………74

56 刁羊

Goat Grabbing (Buzkashi)…………75

57 跑旱船

Land-boat Dance…………76

58 踩高跷

Stilt Walking…………77

59 拖冰床

Ice-bed Pulling…………78

60 耍中幡

Zhongfan Acrobatics (Flag Balancing)…………79

61 赛牦牛

Yak Racing…………80

62 秧歌

Yangge…………81

63 反排木鼓舞

Fanpai Wooden Drum Dance…………82

64 高空走绳

Darwaz (Tightrope Walking)…………84

 

中国传统体育竞技文化 Competitive Sports 85

65 角抵

Jiaodi (Horn Butting)…………87

66 相扑

Xiangpu (Sumo)…………88

67 中国式摔跤

Chinese Wrestling…………90

68 射箭

Archery…………91

69 射弩

Crossbow Shooting…………92

70 弹弓术

Art of Traditional Slingshot…………93

71 蹴鞠

Cuju…………95

72 击鞠

Jiju…………97

73 捶丸

Chuiwan…………97

74 珍珠球

Pearl Ball (Nicuhe)…………99

75 木射

Stake Hitting…………100

76 毽球

Featherball…………101

77 冰蹴球

Ice Cuju…………102

78 举重

Weightlifting…………102

79 赛马

Horse Racing…………104

80 驭车

Chariot Driving…………105

81 散手

Sanshou (Chinese Kickboxing)…………106

82 围棋

Weiqi (Go)…………107

83 象棋

Xiangqi (Chinese Chess)…………109

84 短兵

Short Weapon Combat…………110

85 逾高绝远

Yugao Jueyuan (High Jump and Long Jump)…………111

86 打布鲁

Bulu Throwing…………112

87 掼牛

Bull Wrestling…………113

88 跳板

Seesaw Jumping (Neolttwigi)…………114

89 龙舟竞渡

Dragon Boat Racing…………115

90 板鞋竞速

Board Shoe Racing…………117

91 押加

Yajia…………118

92 抢花炮

Snatching Huapao…………119

93 叉草球

Spearing Straw Balls…………120

94 秋千

Swinging…………121

95 陀螺

Top (Tuoluo) Spinning…………123

 

附录 Appendices 125

北京2022 年冬奥会和冬残奥会竞赛项目简表

List of Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Sports…………125

中国历史年代简表

A Brief Chronology of Chinese History…………127

索引

Index…………129

 

参考文献 References 133

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