Handbook of Rattan in China

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Table of Contents
1.1 Habit 3
1.2 The Stem 4
1.3 The Leaf 5
1.3.1 The Leaf Sheath 5
1.3.2 Rachis and Petiole 6
1.3.3 6
1.4 The Climbing Organs 7
1.5 In.orescences and Flowers 8
1.6 Fruits and Seed 10
2.1 Systematic Research of Rattan 12
2.2 Rattan Resources and Distribution in World 14
2.3 Rattan Resources and Distribution in China 16
2.4 Key to Rattan Genera in China 18
3.1 Calamus acanthospathus Griff 27
3.2 Calamus austro-guangxiensis S. J. Pei & S. Y. Chen 30
3.3 Calamus balansaeanus Becc 32
3.4 Calamus beccarii A. J. Henderson 34
3.5 Calamus compsostachys Burret 37
3.6 Calamus dianbaiensis C. F. Wei 38
3.7 Calamus egregius Burret 40
3.8 Calamus erectus Roxb 42
3.9a Calamus .agellum Griff. ex Mart. var. agellum 45
3.9b Calamus .agellum Griff. ex Mart. var. karinensis Becc 47
3.10 Calamus formosanus Becc. 50
3.11 Calamus gracilis Roxb. 52
3.12 Calamus guruba Buch.-Ham. ex Mart. 55
3.13 Calamus henryanus Becc. 59
3.14 Calamus macrorhynchus Burret 61
3.15 Calamus melanochrous Burret 63
3.16 Calamus menglaensis (S.Y.Chen,S.J.Pei et K.L.Wang)K.L.Wang 65
3.17 Calamus multispicatus Burret 67
3.18a Calamus nambariensis Becc. var. nambariensis 70
3.18b Calamus nambariensis Becc. var. alpinus S. J. Pei & S. Y. Chen 74
3.18c Calamus nambariensis Becc. var. yingjiangensis S. J. Pei & S. Y. Chen 76
3.19a Calamus oxycarpus Becc. var. oxycarpus 78
3.19b Calamus oxycarpus Becc. var. albidus (L. X. Guo & A. J. Henderson) K. L. Wang 80
3.20 Calamus palustris Griff. 82
3.21 Calamus platyacanthoides Merr 85
3.22 Calamus rhabdocladus Burret 88
3.23 Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei 92
3.24 Calamus siphonospathus Mart. 95
3.25 Calamus tetradactyloides Burret 96
3.26a Calamus tetradactylus Hance var. tetradactylus 99
3.26b Calamus tetradactylus Hance var. bonianus (Becc.) Gagnep. & Conratd 102
3.27 Calamus thysanolepis Hance 104
3.28 Calamus viminalis Willd. 108
3.29 Calamus wailong S. J. Pei & S. Y. Chen 111
3.30 Calamus walkeri Hance 114
3.31 Calamus wuliangshanensis S. Y. Chen, K. L. Wang et S. J. Pei 116
4.1 Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart 120
5 MYRIALEPIS Becc. 124
5.1 Myrialepis paradoxa (Kurz) J Dransf. 125
6 PLECTOCOMIA Martius ex Blume 128
6.1 Plectocomia assamica Griff. 130
6.2 Plectocomia himalayana Griff. 132
6.3 Plectocomia microstachys Burret 134
6.4 Plectocomia pierreana Becc 137
7.1 The Basic Properties of Rattan Cane 140
7.1.1 The Apparent Characters of Rattan Cane 140
7.1.2 Anatomical Characteristics of Rattan Cane 140
7.1.3 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rattan Cane 142
7.1.4 Chemical Characteristics of Rattan Cane 144
7.2 Rattan Harvesting 146
7.2.1 Harvesting Characteristics 146
7.2.2 Harvesting Tools 147
7.2.3 Harvesting Methods 148
7.2.4 A Novel Rattan Harvesting Equipment 149
7.3 The Defects and Grading of Rattan Cane 151
7.3.1 Defects of Rattan Cane 151
7.3.2 Grading of Rattan cane 151
7.3.3 Chinese Rattan Cane Defects Standard 152
8.1 Processing of Rattan Cane 155
8.1.1 Oil Curing of Rattan Cane 155
8.1.2 Protection of Rattan Cane 156
8.1.3 Prevention and Control of Rattan Cane Discoloration 157
8.1.4 Bleaching of Rattan Cane 158
8.1.5 Dyeing of Rattan Cane 159
8.1.6 Modi.cation of Rattan Cane 161
8.2 Comprehensive Utilization of Rattan Cane 162
8.2.1 Requirements of Industrial Rattan Cane 162
8.2.2 Rattan Cane Preparation and Processing 162
8.2.3 Recovery Percentage of Rattan Canes 164
8.2.4 Utilization of Rattan Waste 165
Literature Cited 167
Index of Scienti.c Names 178
Index of Common/Vernacular Names 182
County of Rattan Distribution in China 184
Acronyms of Specimen Collector 186
Herbarium Code 189
Code of Ethnic Minorities Names 190
Rattan Glossary 191
Acknowledgments 201 -----
Sample Pages Preview
  The English word “rattan” in turn came from the Malay word “rotan” or “raut”, which means to “pare, smoothen or whittle.” It is means that the stems of rattan, after stripping off its sheaths and leaf-sheaths, provide uniquely light, flexible and durable canes as structural materials for furniture industry and other uses.
  Rattans are the most important group of forest species after timber which based on its remarkably, cheapness, versatility, strength and renewability, all in all makes it almost possible for wood, meta1, plastic or any other martial. Taxonomy, rattan belonging to the tribe Calameae, subfamily Calamoideae, and family Palmae (or Arecaceae), and are distributed in peat swamp, evergreen, dry evergreen and mixed deciduous forests at elevations up to 2,900 m above mean sea level.
  Rattan plants are divided into ground and underground parts. The upper part of the ground consists of stems, leaves, climbing organ (cirrus and .agellum, see section 1.4), inflorescence, or infructescence (Fig. 1-1, Fig. 1-4).
  Handbook of Rattan in China
  Fig. 1-1 Upper part of the ground
  1. Stem; 2. Leaf; 3. Leaflets; 4. Cirrus; 5. Inflorescences; 6. Infructescence; 7. Partial infructescence; 8. Fruit
  Little is known about the root system of rattans. Casual observations indicate that the root system of Calamus caesius may be complex, with widely radiating, horizontally growing roots, and short vertical root systems, some growing geotropically (i.e. downwards) and some growing apogeotropically (i.e. upwards) (Dransfield, 1979).
  1.1 Habit
  Based on the life forms of rattan, most members of the rattan plants are climbers, some species are erect, short-stemmed or acaulescent, such as following as:
  (1) Climbing rattan: Most rattan species are climbing, and they rely on the nearby tree and climbing upward growth, such as Calamus gracilis, C. acanthospathus, Daemonorops jenkinsiana and Plectocomia himalayana, etc. These species have climbing stems that their internodes are long and flexible.
  (2) Erect rattan: Some species of rattan are erect, and they often have large erect stems, such Calamus erectus, C. dianbaiensis and C. arborescens etc., and they have short stiff internodes and an erect stem like a small tree.
  (3) Acaulescent rattan: A small amount of rattan is acaulescent, ex. Calamus pygmaeus and Daemonorops ingens (Fig. 1-2), and has internodes so short that it appears stemless.
  Fig. 1-2 Rattan habit of stem
  1. Climbing stem; 2. Erect; 3. Stemless
  In addition, some researchers think that some species of rattan with a subterranean or creeping stem, such as Calamus minutus.
  Based on different branching habits, rattan plants are divided into three types (Fig. 1-3):
  (1) Clustered rattan: Most rattan species can produce new stems from the rootstock, it is called the clustering habit (i.e. with many stems in an individual), such as Calamus gracilis, C. henryanus, C. rhabdocladus and C. viminalis.
  (2) Solitary rattan: Some species cannot do this so an individual only ever has one stem. This is the solitary habit (i.e. single stemmed), such as Calamus acanthospathus, and C. manan.
  (3) Branching rattan: Some species of rattan (such as species of Plectocomia, Korthalsia and Laccosperma) can produce branches anywhere along the stem and other species can produce a branch occasionally if the shoot is damaged, Such as Plectocomia himalayana, P. pierreana, and P. microstachys.
  Fig. 1-3 Rattan branching habit
  1. Clustering rattan; 2. Solitary rattan; 3. Branching rattan
  1.2 The Stem
  Rattan stem, commonly known as cane, is covered with sheaths. Raised rings divide the stem into segments (internodes, Fig. 1-4, Fig. 1-5) like a bamboo stem but it is woody and solid, not hollow. The new leaves and new stem segments are produced only at the tip of the stem, which is soft and fleshy. This part is often called the shoot. The shoots of many species are considered delicious vegetables by local people. Overlapping leaf sheaths conceal the shoot and upper part of the stem. Eventually the older leaves die, fall off and are not replaced, leaving the lower, woodier part of the stem bare. The diameter can vary greatly between individuals or between the base and tip of a stem, but it can provide some clues for identification (Evans et al., 2001).
  Fig. 1-4 Stem, Leaf, and In.orescences
  1. Leaflet; 2. Rachis; 3. Petiole; 4. Knee; 5. Leaf sheath; 6. Spines; 7. Ocrea; 8. Cane; 9. Inflorescences; 10. Flagellum
  Fig. 1-5 Cane
  1. Node; 2. Internode
  1.3 The Leaf
  Rattan leaves is composed of leaf sheath, petiole, rachis and pinna (leaflets) (Fig. 1-4).
  1.3.1 The Leaf Sheath
  The leaf sheath, the lowest part of the leaf, is usually forms a tough tube and embracing the stem. In some species (most Calamus and Daemonorops species) there is a strong fold just below where the rachis begins.
  Most climbing rattans bear a distinct swelling at the apex of the sheath below the petiole called knee, it is looks like a big nose usually. It is clearly that knee occur in some species of Calamus and Daemonorops, but knee absent from all species of Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, and Plectocomiopsis. Knee often has different types (Fig. 1-6).
  Fig. 1-6 Knee forms
  1. Lean clean; 2. Knee inconspicuous; 3. Without knee
  At the mouth of the sheath there is often a weak, non-woody, conspicuous extension or appendage called an ocrea. The ocrea varies in size, form, color, and armor among genera and species (Fig. 1-7), in some species of Korthalsia is inflated and harbors ants.
  Newly emerged sheaths often have a lot of indumentum. It may be bright red or yellow but on older sheaths they often become dull green. This is the dusty, fluffy or waxy coating on the surface of a rattan. It is easily rubbed off with your fingers and in nature tends to be worn away as the surface gets older. On sheaths it may be white, red, brown or black and occur in patches, in neat stripes or all over. It wears off quickly except where it is protected by spines.
  Sheath spines are extremely variable. Try to look at their colour, abundance, maximum length, position, the presence of very short spines, the way they grow (singly or joined in rows) and their shape (thick, flat or needle-like). This character of spines on the knee is considerable importance in identifying genera and species of rattan, such as rarely spines in stem in C. menglaensis.
  1.3.2 Rachis and Petiole
  The leaf is made up of a single stout central axis, called as rachis (Fig. 1-4), which has many leaflets along it. Frequently, rachis bears reflexed grapnel-like spines on the lower surface. The lowest part has no leaflets and is called the petiole. The length and covered spines of the petiole is useful for identification.
  1.3.3 is one part of a compound leaf. The blade often regularly or irregularly divided into one ribbed or several-ribbed units each consisting of a single fold or of several folds, and this unit called leaflets (or pinnae) in pinnate leaves. The rattan leaf is basically pinnate, and in almost all rattans the leaflets consist of a single .-shaped (or feather-shaped) fold. Leaflet shape, armature, hairiness and arrangement are all of diagnostic importance.
  Leaflets are arranged in various ways (Fig. 1-8). Most commonly, leaflets are regularly arranged along the rachis and spread in the same plane. In comparison, some leaflets are irregularly arranged or in grouped, and leaflets spread in the same or different planes.
  The leaflet shape is even more variable, the shape of leaflets is often linear, lanceolate, ensiform, ovate or elliptic, terminating acuminate or acute, usually armed with bristles.
  The leaflet surface and leaflet margins are often bristly, and the surface bristles are usually growing from the main veins. Some rattan species have silvery or gray indumentum on the lower surface of the leaflets (e.g. Calamus macrorhynchus, C. oxycarpus), and this is always a useful identification character for species identification.
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