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#### Essence of Fluid Mechanics

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##### Table of Contents
CONTENTS
Preface
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Some Basic Facts About Fluid Mechanics 1
1.3 Fluids and the Continuum 5
1.4 The Perfect Gas Equation of State 7
1.5 Regimes of Fluid Mechanics 9
1.5.1 Ideal Fluid Flow 9
1.5.2 Viscous Incompressible Flow 10
1.5.3 Gas Dynamics 10
1.5.4 Rarefied Gas Dynamics 11
1.5.5 Flow of Multicomponent Mixtures 13
1.5.6 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow 13
1.6 Dimension and Units 13
1.7 Law of Dimensional Homogeneity 14
1.8 Summary 17
1.9 Exercises 17
Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Basic Properties of Fluids 19
2.2.1 Pressure of Fluids 20
2.2.2 Temperature 21
2.2.3 Density 22
2.2.4 Viscosity 23
2.2.5 Compressibility 28
2.3 Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids 29
2.3.1 Specific Heat 29
2.3.2 The Ratio of Specific Heats 30
2.3.3 Thermal Conductivity of Air 31
2.4 Surface Tension 32
2.5 Summary 34
2.6 Exercises 34
Chapter 3 Fluid Statics 36
3.1 Introduction 36
3.2 Scalar， Vector and Tensor Quantities 36
3.3 Body and Surface Forces 37
3.4 Forces in Stationary Fluids 38
3.5 Pressure Force on a Fluid Element 39
3.6 Basic Equations of Fluid Statics 40
3.6.1 Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution 41
3.6.2 Measurement of Pressures 43
3.6.3 Units and Scales of Pressure Measurement 46
3.7 The Atmosphere 46
3.7.1 The International Standard Atmosphere 47
3.7.2 Calculations on the Stratosphere 47
3.7.3 Calculations on the Troposphere 49
3.8 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces 54
3.9 Buoyancy 56
3.10 Summary 57
3.11 Exercises 58
References 62
Chapter 4 Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid Flow 63
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Description of Fluid Flow 63
4.2.1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Methods 63
4.2.2 Local and Material Rates of Change 64
4.2.3 Graphical Description of Fluid Motion 66
4.3 Basic and Subsidiary Laws 68
4.3.1 System and Control Volume 68
4.3.2 Integral and Differential Analysis 69
4.4 Basic Equation 69
4.4.1 Continuity Equation 70
4.4.2 Momentum Equation 70
4.4.3 Equation of State 72
4.4.4 Boundary Layer Equation 73
4.5 Rotational and Irrotational Motion 75
4.5.1 Circulation and Vorticity 75
4.5.2 Stream Function 76
4.5.3 Relationship Between Stream Function and Velocity Potential 77
4.6 Potential Flow 78
4.6.1 Two-Dimensional Source and Sink 81
4.6.2 Simple Vortex 82
4.6.3 Source-Sink Pair 84
4.6.4 Doublet 84
4.7 Flow Past a Half-Body—Combination of Simple Flows 88
4.8 Summary 97
4.9 Exercises 97
Chapter 5 Several Problems of Fluid Dynamics 114
5.1 Introduction 114
5.2 Viscous Flows 114
5.3 Drag of Bodies 117
5.3.1 Pressure Drag 118
5.3.2 Skin Friction Drag 124
5.3.3 Comparison of Drag of Various Bodies 125
5.4 Turbulence 128
5.5 Flow Through Pipes 136
5.6 Flow Past a Circular Cylinder Without Circulation 142
5.7 Flow Past a Circular Cylinder With Circulation 146
5.8 Summary 151
5.9 Exercises 151
References 162
Chapter 6 Boundary Layer 163
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Boundary Layer Development 164
6.3 Boundary Layer Thickness 167
6.3.1 Displacement Thickness 168
6.3.2 Momentum Thickness 170
6.3.3 Kinetic Energy Thickness 171
6.3.4 Non-Dimensional Velocity Profile 172
6.3.5 Types of Boundary Layer 173
6.4 Boundary Layer Flow 175
6.5 Boundary Layer Solutions 179
6.6 Momentum-Integral Estimates 179
6.6.1 Conservation of Linear Momentum 179
6.6.2 Karman’s Analysis of Flat Plate Boundary Layer 181
6.7 Boundary Layer Equations in Dimensionless Form 182
6.8 Flat Plate Boundary Layer 189
6.8.1 Laminar Flow Boundary Layer 190
6.8.2 Boundary Layer Thickness for Flat Plate 192
6.9 Turbulent Boundary Layer for Incompressible Flow Along a Flat Plate 201
6.10 Flows With Pressure Gradient 205
6.11 Laminar Integral Theory 206
6.12 Summary 214
6.13 Exercises 214
References 217

1.1 引言 1
1.2 流体力学概况 1
1.3 流体和连续介质 5
1.4 完全气体状态方程 7
1.5 流体力学范畴 9
1.5.1 理想流体流动 9
1.5.2 黏性不可压缩流动 10
1.5.3 气体动力学 10
1.5.4 稀薄气体动力学 11
1.5.5 多元混合流动 13
1.5.6 非牛顿流体流动 13
1.6 量纲和单位制 13
1.7 量纲一致性原理 14
1.8 小结 17
1.9 习题 17

2.1 引言 19
2.2 流体的基本性质 19
2.2.1 流体压力 20
2.2.2 温度 21
2.2.3 密度 22
2.2.4 黏性 23
2.2.5 可压缩性 28
2.3 流体的热力学性质 29
2.3.1 比热 29
2.3.2 比热比 30
2.3.3 空气的导热性 31
2.4 表面张力 32
2.5 小结 34
2.6 习题 34

3.1 引言 36
3.2 标量、矢量和张量 36
3.3 体积力和表面力 37
3.4 静止流体中的力 38
3.5 流体微元上的压力合力 39
3.6 流体静力学基本方程 40
3.6.1 流体静压分布 41
3.6.2 压力测量 43
3.6.3 压力测量单位和尺度 46
3.7 大气 46
3.7.1 国际标准大气 47
3.7.2 平流层计算 47
3.7.3 对流层计算 49
3.8 浸没表面上的静压力 54
3.9 浮力 56
3.10 小结 57
3.11 习题 58

4.1 引言 63
4.2 流体流动的描述 63
4.2.1 拉格朗日法和欧拉法 63
4.2.2 当地导数和随体（物质）导数 64
4.2.3 流体运动的图形化描述 66
4.3 基本定律和
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