Earthquake Disaster Preparedness for the Tourism Industries in Japan and China

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction/1 
1.1 Tourism/2 
1.2Disasters and disaster preparedness/4 
1.3 Study sites/4 
1.4 Tourism development in Japan and China/5 
1.5 Earthquake disasters in Japan and China/8 
1.6Problem statement/11 
1.7 Research objectives and structure/15 
Chapter 2 Literature review/24 
2.1 Disaster's impact on tourism/24 
2.2Tourism disaster management/30 
Chapter 3 Sensitivity of tourism demand to huge earthquakes/37 
3.1 Objectives/37 
3.2 Methods/38 
3.3 The Great East Japan Earthoquake/41 
3.4The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake/50 
Chapter 4 The impact of disasters on Japan's inbound tourism demand/55 
4.1 Objectives/55 
4.2Data and methods/57 
4.3Empirical analysis/62 
Chapter 5 An analysis of tourist perception and attitude toward disasters: A case study of recent Chinese large earthquake disasters/75 
5.1 Objectives/75 
5.2 Study sites/78 
5.3Data and methods/78 
5.4Data analysis and results/89 
5.5 Conclusion and discussion/95 
Chapter 6 Tourism sector preparedness in the zone with high seismic risk: A case study of the National Capital Region of Japan/100 
6.2Tokyo inland earthquake disasters/102 
6.5Structural equation modeling/116 
Chapter 7 Conclusion and discussion/139 
7.2 Overall findings of the study/140 
7.4 Future study/146 
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Tourism in East Asia and the Pacific is thriving. The World Tourism Organization(UNWTO) reported that East Asia and the Pacific has been the fastest-growing destination region over the past 30 years. Forecasts for the international tourist arrivals to the region show that there will be 397 million arrivals in 2020. However, tourism is sensitive to catastrophic influences and part of the long term volatility of tourism demand is due to the variety of shocks to the tourism system from external events. Hence, to improve resilience of tourism becomes of importance.
This book takes Japan,a developed country, and China,a developing country in Asia and the Pacific region as the cases to explore earthquake disaster preparedness. Both of them are earthquake-prone countries and have experienced huge earthquakes causing large loss in tourism business.
Firstly,a literature review of tourism and disaster is conducted. It is found that most papers explored disasters' impact on tourism demand, emphasizing on natural disasters such as earthquake and tsunami, terrorist attack, epidemics and fire. Also,a large number of researches focused on general disaster management for tourism industry. However, the literature has rarely dealt with specific disaster preparedness, such as earthquake preparedness, which may play a critical role in influencing continuity in tourism development in the destinations.
Next, the principal part of this book is divided into four sections.A preliminary study is to test the sensitivity of tourism demand due to huge earthquakes applying the analysis of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average(ARIMA) model with dummy variables. Then, intervention analysis is used to explore the main disasters that negatively and significantly impact tourism demand. The third section is to investigate tourist perception and attitude toward earthquakes by a case study of recent Chinese large earthquake disasters, that is, from the perspective of tourism demand. The final section is to examine tourism sector preparedness in the zone with high seismic risk by a case study of the National Capital Region of Japan.
Several distinct findings are obtained. First, huge earthquakes actually and significantly impacted tourism demand. Recovery process is unique that it gets quick recovery in early stage but becomes slow as time goes on. Compared with other disasters, huge earthquakes largely affected tourism demand. Second, word of mouth plays an important role in travel decision making. Tourist satisfaction was directly impacted by perceived earthquakes' impact on tourism, which was influenced by risk perception and travel motivation. Third, the respondent business in the survey region was well prepared in emergency response plans and drills. Disaster prevention for foreign visitors was lower. And less business bought insurance for disaster. Overall preparedness level for the estimated Tokyo Inland earthquake is low. Business preparedness is comparatively higher. Most respondents were not sure whether the communities, councils, central government and country have well prepared.
Lastly, it is hoped that these findings will shed lights on policy-making in tourism destinations. The stakeholders can get a better understanding of earthquake influence on tourism. Moreover, tourism researchers can conduct intensive research on disaster preparedness in high-risk areas.
Earthquake Disaster Preparedness for the Tourism Industries in Japan and China