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A Survey of Chinese Culture

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Author: Li Xiaohong;
Language: English
Page: 223
Publication Date: 01/2015
ISBN: 7300194923, 9787300194929
Publisher: China Renmin University Press
Details

Chinese classical important philosophers and thinkers and their main ideas, ancient China's cultural achievements, and social folk culture (architecture, painting, opera, calligraphy, food, wine, tea, silk, martial arts) and so on. 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Origin and Development of Chinese Culture
Unit 1 Overview of Chinese Civilization
Unit 2 Early Chinese Civilization
Unit 3 Civilization in Legendary Period
Unit 4 Yu the Great and Flood Control
Unit 5 Xia,Shang,and Zhou Dynasties

Chapter 2 Philosophical Wisdom and Beliefs
Unit 1 Earliest Written Philosophies
Unit 2 Confucius and Confucian Thought
Unit 3 Mencius and His Influence
Unit 4 Lao Tzu and Tao Te Ching
Unit 5 Chuang Tzu and His Philosophical Views
Unit 6 Other Ancient Chinese Philosophers
Unit 7 Morals and Values
Unit 8 Chinese Taoism
Unit 9 Chinese Buddhism

Chapter 3 Cultural Achievements
Unit 1 Chinese Pottery and Porcelain
Unit 2 Chinese Language and Characters
Unit 3 Sun Tzus Art of War
Unit 4 Four Great Inventions
Unit 5 Mythology and Classical Folktales
Unit 6 Ming and Qing Dynasty Novels
Unit 7 Traditional Chinese Medicine 

Chapter 4 Chinese Art Forms
Unit 1 Chinese Folk Art Culture
Unit 2 Chinese Painting and Calligraphy
Unit 3 Chinese Opera
Unit 4 Traditional Chinese Architecture
Unit 5 Chinese Silk
Unit 6 Chinese Martial Arts
Unit 7 Traditional Festivals and Folk Customs
Unit 8 Chinese Tea Culture
Unit 9 Chinese Food Culture
Unit 10 Chinese Wine Culture
参考文献

Sample Pages Preview

The Tao is also spiritual.Or in other words,the Tao itself is nothingness or non-ex- istence.Since all things of the world are born from the Tao,it is equally natural to say that they are born from nothingness.That is why Lao Tzu says,"That existence springs from the Tao as non-existent and unnamed." 
The ontological Tao is the combination of the spiritual and the materialistic.Lao Tzu understands that the conversion between existence and non-existence must undergo a process of conditional change.He knows that the Tao(Nothingness)can't beget all things in the world once and for all.Instead,there must be an orderly process from one to two, three...etc.He states,"A tree that fills the arms grows from a tiny shoot.A tower of nine stories begins from a small heap of earth.A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step." It is obviously that Lao Tzu clearly recognizes the necessary process of con version between quality and quantity.It is only out of a consideration of the philosophical brevity in expression that he avoids being existence involved in describing the countless links of gradual evolution between existence and non-existence.He wisely gets hold of the extremes of universal phenomena:the substantial Being and Nothingness (the materialistic and the spiritual).Furthermore,he umfies these two extremes into the Tao. 
Tao as the Dialectic Law 
The Law of Nature-According to Lao Tzu, there are various laws underlying all things of the universe including Heaven,Earth,and Man.However the best and most functional law is "let the things take their own course naturally."He says, "Man takes his law from the Earth.The Earth takes its law from Heaven.Heaven takes its law from the Tao.The law of the Tao is its being what it is." 
The Tao is the Law of the Unity of Opposites.Reversibility is the basic motion of the Tao;that is,two opposite sides that form a contradiction will turn in their opposite directions.Contradictions are universal.The two opposite sides are by no means isolated but are mutually interdependent.He says, "In recognizing beauty,we have the idea of ugliness; in knowing something as good,we consider other things as not good.So it is that:existence and non-existence give birth to one another; difficulty and ease complement one another; length and shortness fashion each other; height and lowness contrast with one another in position;tones and voice interdepend on each other in harmony;before and behind follow each other in company." The concepts also appear in Chapter 20:"The partial becomes complete; the crooked becomes straight; the empty becomes full; the worn becomes new.The saying of the ancients,that 'the partial becomes complete' is indeed true.

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A Survey of Chinese Culture
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