The Past and Present of China's Seas

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Table of Contents
Ocean's Embrace 
Eternally Moist- Broad China Sea 
The Foothold Facing the Sea - Major Peninsulas,Straits and Bays in China 
A Shining Pearl Necklace- Numerous Excellent Harbors in China 
Treasures in China's Seas - China's Star-studded Islands 
History of China's Seas 
Ancient China's Marine Memories 
Waves that Never Disappear- Major Maritime Events after the Qin Dynasty 
Humiliation and Resistance over the Sea in Modern Times 
Two National Crises caused by Prohibition of Opium 
Westernization Movement with the Theme of Self-improvement" and "Prosperity" 
Western Powers' Partition of China 
History of Safeguarding the Sea Power 
Starting of Modern Sea 
Restoration of the Marine Industry and the Development of the Salt Chemical Industry 
Lay a Scientific Foundation for Marine Industry Development 
Development of China's Seas 
Planning and Preparation of Marine Resources 
Representatives of "Blue Economy" 
Safeguard Sea Rights and Blue Territory 
"Responsible" Maritime Power 
Self-regulation in Marine Protection and Development 
Initiatives to Safeguard Safe Navigation 
Missions and Expectations in Marine Space 
Appendix: References
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The third option is using scull, which is a very successful invention.Sculling can provide a continuous pushing force for the boat, and play the role of a rudder. But while paddling, the paddle can only provide a pushing force when you paddle it, and the paddle has to be lifted out of the water and put back into the water, so half of the energy is wasted. Archaeological findings have proved that the scull came about during the Han Dynasty, but the period for developing the invention of the scull had not yet concluded. 
300 Boats Were Used to Move the Capital 
In the Warring States period, the shipbuilding industry had a considerable size. The Book of Yue and Jue" recorded that when the State of Yue moved its capital in 468 B.C., 300 boats were used; and when the State of Qin invaded the State of Chu, they used over ten thousand big boats. It is worth noting that the shipbuilding capability at that time was quite considerable, and it was not difficult to use hundreds of boats, or even more, in large movements. The boats had a specific division of labor at that time. A book called "A Critical History Of Institutions" recorded that the boat for the emperor's special use named "Yuhuang"; the book called "Songs of Chu" recorded that the boats used for civil traffic were named "Ling":and the "Book of Yue and Jue" recorded that the boat named "Weizhou" was made by putting four boats side by side, the boat named "Fang" was made by putting two boats side by side, and the floating bridge made by putting many boats side by side. The boats for military use were further subdivided, such as "Gechuan", "Maotu", "Louchuan", "Qiaochuan", "Dayi","Zhongyi", "Xiaoyi", and etc. At that time, in the State of Wu, the "Dayi" boat was 10 zhangs (about 26 m) in length, and 1 zhang 5 chis and 2 tuns (about 4 m) in width.
The Past and Present of China's Seas