Contemporary Bamboo Architecture in China

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Table of Contents

1 Distribution of Bamboo Forest Resources and Species for Construction 1

1.1 Chinese and Global Markets for Bamboo Structural Products 4

References 5

2 Types and Characteristics of Bamboo Materials for Construction Uses 7

2.1 Structure and Morphology of Bamboo 8

2.2 Bamboo as a Load-Bearing Structural Material 9

2.2.1 Full-Culm Bamboo 9

2.2.2 Engineered Bamboo 15

2.3 Bamboo as Enclosure and Decoration Materials 19

2.3.1 Bamboo Flooring 19

2.3.2 Indoor Bamboo Decorative Materials 20

2.4 Bamboo in Other Structural Load-Bearing Applications 22

2.4.1 Bamboo Scaffolding 22

2.4.2 Bamboo-Reinforced Concrete Structures 23

2.4.3 Bamboo-Reinforced Masonry Structures 24

2.4.4 Application of Bamboo Bars in Soil Reinforcement Engineering 24

2.4.5 Application of Bamboo in Strengthening of Existing Structures 25

References 26

3 Research and Development Status of Different Types of Bamboo Structures 31

3.1 Full Culm Bamboo Structures 31

3.1.1 Research Status of Full Culm Bamboo Structures 43

3.1.2 Summary of Full Culm Bamboo Structures 46

3.2 Engineered Bamboo Structures 46

3.2.1 Research Achievements in Engineered Bamboo Structures 53


28 Contents

3.2.2 Summary of Engineered Bamboo Structures 55

References 55

4 Standards 59

4.1 International Standards 59

4.2 Chinese Bamboo Standards 62

References 69

5 International Organizations, Research Institutions, and Production and Processing Enterprises in China 71

5.1 International Organization 71

5.2 Research Institutions 72

5.2.1 Bibliographic Analysis Methodology 72

5.2.2 Findings 72

5.3 Production and Processing Enterprises 75

References 78

6 Case Studies 79

6.1 Bamboo as Decorative Materials 80

6.2 Bamboo as Structural Materials 123

6.3 Landscapes 200

6.4 Rural Construction 232

6.5 Transport Facilities 245

6.6 Water Pipelines and Urban Municipal Tunnels 255

References 260

7 Opportunities and Challenges for the Modern Bamboo Construction Industry in China 261

7.1 Advantages for Competition 261

7.1.1 Resources and Material Advantages 261

7.1.2 Industrial and Technological Advantages 263

7.1.3 The Advantage of Eco-culture Value 264

7.2 Disadvantages for Competition 264

7.2.1 Inadequate Basic Research 264

7.2.2 Inadequate Penetration of Automation in Bamboo Processing Industries 265

7.2.3 Lack of Standardisation 265

7.2.4 Lack of Capacity-Building for Professionals 266

7.3 Opportunities 266

7.3.1 Support by National Policies 266

7.3.2 Towns with Local Characteristics and Revitalization of Rural Areas 267

7.4 Threats 267

7.4.1 The Rising Cost of Labour 267

7.4.2 Low Public Awareness of Bamboo Architecture 268

7.4.3 Risk in Bamboo Enterprises 268

7.5 Summary 269

References 269

Sample Pages Preview

With the largest population in the world, China needs a large number of buildings to provide necessary support for people’s work and life. However, large-scale urban construction, dominated by concrete and steel, results in increased carbon emis-sions and places a burden on energy resources and the environment. Sustainable urban development faces enormous challenges. In recent years, people have begun to explore more environmentally friendly building materials and methods, and the use of natural building materials is popular among urban planners and builders. However, due to the lack of forest resources in China and the need to import large amounts of wood from other countries, bamboo has garnered attention as a natural native alternative to wood.

China not only has the richest bamboo resources in the world, but also has a deep-rooted bamboo cultural tradition. How to make rational use of this natural material so that bamboo architecture can play its unique role in sustainable urban and rural construction has become a new direction of exploration.

Against the background of global bamboo architecture development, this book describes the distribution of bamboo forest and bamboo species for construction, the types and characteristics of bamboo materials for construction, the development history and research status of different forms of bamboo architecture. We go on to describe standards, relevant international organizations, research institutions and production and processing enterprises and typical cases. Starting from six aspects, this book systematically describes bamboo building development in China, analyzes the opportunities and challenges faced by the bamboo construction industry in China and provides guidance for the development of the bamboo construction industry in China.

In the .rst chapter, the main species of bamboo used for construction and the distribution of resources are presented. Chapter 2 focuses on the introduction of two types of bamboo materials which are widely used in the construction sector: full-culm bamboo and engineered bamboo. The chapter introduces each type from the perspective of three potential uses: structural load-bearing materials, enclosure and decorative materials and other functional materials. Chapter 2 also introduces the physical and mechanical properties of these bamboo materials with relevant test

12 Preface

methods, as well as the research status of long-term performance, durability and .re resistance. At the same time, the application and research status of bamboo in other construction realms are brie.y introduced, including bamboo scaffolding, bamboo-reinforced concrete and masonry, bamboo soil reinforcement, bamboo reinforce-ment for existing structures, etc. Chapter 3 introduces the development history and research status of full-culm and engineered bamboo structures. Chapter 4 system-atically analyzes international standards related to bamboo structures, as well as the development of China’s current national and provincial standards and industry and association standards. Chapter 5 brie.y introduces the international organiza-tions, research institutions and production and processing enterprises which are engaged in research, application and promotion of bamboo architecture in China. In Chap. 6, more than 70 exemplary (commercial) cases constructed mostly since 2014 are selected to provide a detailed overview of the use of bamboo as deco-rative and structural materials. In order to fully explore the potential of bamboo in engineering applications, the authors introduce the use of bamboo construction for transportation facilities (bridges, highway landscape fences and bus stations), landscape, water pipelines and urban municipal tunnels. The authors hope readers are inspired by these most vivid cases and experience the charm of modern Chinese bamboo architecture. In Chap. 7, the authors apply strength–weakness–opportunity– threat (SWOT) analysis to enumerate opportunities and challenges faced by China’s modern bamboo construction industry. Approaches to leveraging opportunities and overcoming challenges are presented.

This book seeks to objectively describe commercial cases to showcase the status of the bamboo construction sector in China. No commercial endorsement is intended or should be implied in any instance. Please enjoy this book as it was intended: as a unique source of reference.

Beijing, China K. W. Liu

Shanghai, China Q. F. Xu

Beijing, China G. Wang

Beijing, China F. M. Chen

Shanghai, China Y. B. Leng

Beijing, China J. Yang

Pittsburgh, USA K. A. Harries

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Contemporary Bamboo Architecture in China