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From Zero Waste to Material Closed Loop: The Way Towards Circular Economy

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Author: Yang Jianming ; ;
Language: English
Page: 260
Publication Date: 08/2022
ISBN: 9787122411686
Publisher: Chemical Industry Press
Table of Contents
1 A Brief History onWaste 1
2 Waste Morphology and Types 5
2.1 Off-Gas 5
2.2 Effluent 7
2.3 Rubbish 8
3 Thermodynamic Principle for Waste 9
4 Mass Balance and Unorganized Emission 13
4.1 Mass Balance 13
4.2 Unorganized Discharge 16
5 Waste Management 19
5.1 International Conventions 19
5.2 International Standards 21
5.2.1 ISO 22
5.2.2 IEC 22
5.2.3 ITU 23
5.3 National Laws and International Organization Laws 23
5.3.1 The United States 23
5.3.2 The European Union 24
5.3.3 China 24
5.4 National Standards and International Organization Standards 26
5.4.1 The United States 26
5.4.2 The European Union 27
5.4.3 China 28
5.5 Industry Standards and Local Standards 28
6 Waste Diversion 31
6.1 Diversion Strategy 31
6.2 DiversionMethod 32
6.2.1 Landfill 32
6.2.2 Incineration 35
6.2.3 Elimination 37
6.2.4 Reuse 38
6.2.5 Reduction 39
6.2.6 Recycling 39
6.2.7 Aerobic Composting 41
6.2.8 Anaerobic Digestion 42
6.2.9 Biofuel 43
6.2.10 Repairing 43
6.2.11 Refurbishment 45
6.2.12 Remanufacturing 46
6.2.13 Conclusion 47
7 Waste Treatment and Disposal Technology 49
7.1 ChemicalWaste 49
7.1.1 Inorganic Waste Compounds 50
7.1.2 Organic Waste Compounds 54
7.2 ConstructionWaste 58
7.2.1 Management of Construction Waste 58
7.2.2 Sources of Construction Waste 59
7.2.3 Common Disposal Methods of Recyclable Materials 61
7.2.4 Regulations and Examples of Construction Waste Recycling in Various Countries 63
7.3 ElectronicWaste 67
7.3.1 The Hazardous Substances in E-Waste 67
7.3.2 Treatment Technology of E-Waste 69
7.4 MedicalWaste 75
7.4.1 Types and Hazards of Medical Waste 75
7.4.2 Methods of Treatment and Disposal of Medical Waste 77
7.5 KitchenWaste 78
7.5.1 Sources and Types of Kitchen Waste 78
7.5.2 Oil and Water Separation 81
7.5.3 WasteWater Treatment 82
7.5.4 Off-Gas Treatment 82
7.5.5 Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recovery 83
7.6 LaboratoryWaste 84
7.6.1 Laboratory Off-Gas 84
7.6.2 Laboratory Waste Water 86
7.6.3 Laboratory Solid Waste 87
7.7 SecondaryWaste 89
7.7.1 Sources and Characteristics of Secondary Waste 89
7.7.2 Municipal Sludge 90
8 Zero Waste Theory and Practice 103
8.1 Chemical Industry 103
8.1.1 Green Chemistry 103
8.1.2 Treatment Process Selection 105
8.2 Machinery Industry 107
8.2.1 Industry Characteristics 107
8.2.2 Corresponding Measures 108
8.3 Automotive Industry 109
8.3.1 Source of Generation 110
8.3.2 Zero Waste Opportunities 112
8.4 Consumer Electronic Industry 115
8.4.1 Industry Characteristics 115
8.4.2 Sources and Streams 116
8.4.3 Stream Analysis 117
8.4.4 ZeroWaste Practices 121
8.5 Retail Industry 123
8.5.1 Industry Characteristics 124
8.5.2 ZeroWaste Practices 128
8.6 Grand Event 133
8.6.1 Characteristics of Grand Events and Their Waste Management 133
8.6.2 Organizational Operations and Zero Waste 135
8.6.3 Zero Waste Requirements at Different Stages 138
8.6.4 ZeroWaste Case Studies 139
8.7 Property and City 143
8.7.1 Unit Property 144
8.7.2 Comprehensive Properties 145
8.7.3 Zero Waste Cities (Waste-Free Cities) 150
8.7.4 Nation-Wide ZeroWaste 156
9 Zero Waste and Eco-Design 159
9.1 Eco-Design System 159
9.2 Design for Disassembly 160
9.2.1 Dismantlable Design Definition 160
9.2.2 Dismantlable Design Criteria 160
9.2.3 Dismantlable Design Evaluation 162
9.3 Design for Recycling 163
9.3.1 Process and Principle of Material Selection 164
9.3.2 Basic Requirements for Selection of Recyclable Materials 165
9.3.3 General Methods for Selection of Recyclable Materials 165
9.3.4 Calculation Method of Recyclability Rate 166
9.4 Design for Maintenance/Repairing 167
9.4.1 Several Definitions of Repairing 167
9.4.2 Considerations in the Process of Repairable Design 167
9.5 Design for Remanufacturing 169
9.5.1 From A to A 169
9.5.2 From A to B 170
9.5.3 Calculation of Remanufacturing Rate 172
9.6 Conclusion 173
10 Reverse Logistics 175
10.1 Definition and Category 175
10.2 Waste Logistics 176
10.3 Logistics Cost 178
10.3.1 Cost Composition 178
10.3.2 Costing 179
10.3.3 Cost Analysis 179
10.3.4 CostManagement 182
10.4 Drive and Development 183
11 Material Closed Loop 185
11.1 Recycling and Closed Loop 185
11.2 Regulatory Supervision 188
11.3 Material Identification 191
11.3.1 Identification Procedures 191
11.3.2 Technical Regulation 193
11.3.3 Identification Standard 195
11.4 Economic Benefit and Environmental Benefit 196
11.5 ZeroWaste, Carbon Neutral 198
12 On Circular Economy 201
12.1 Background and Support 201
12.2 Development Concept 203
12.3 Legal Difference 204
12.4 InnovationModel 206
12.4.1 Commercial Leasing 206
12.4.2 Sharing Economy 207
12.4.3 Cloud Technology 210
12.4.4 Blockchain Technology 212
13 Circular Economy Standard and Certification 215
13.1 Product Circularity 215
13.2 Facility Circularity 221
13.3 Corporate Circularity 222
14 Zero Waste Philosophy and Environmental Ethics 227
14.1 ZeroWaste Philosophy 227
14.1.1 Taoism 228
14.1.2 Confucianism 229
14.1.3 Marxist Philosophy 229
14.2 Environmental Ethics 230
14.2.1 Environmental Ethics Principles 231
14.2.2 The Content of Environmental Ethics 232
14.2.3 Environmental Ethics and Environmental Legal System 233
14.2.4 Case Studies 233
14.3 The Future of Humankind 237
Appendix 239
Epilogue 259
Sample Pages Preview

Preface

Circular economy is a hot topic.
The definition of circular economy is complicated, and the standards vary in different countries, regions and industries. But there is a relatively general and popular definition.
Circular economy is also known as "resource cycling economy". The economy development pattern features resource conservation and recycling, in order to stay in harmony with the environment. It emphasizes on organizing economic activities in a feedback process of "resources-product-renewable resources". Low exaction, high utilization and low discharge are the key. All materials and energy are reasonably and sustainably used in this ongoing cycle, keeping the impact of economic activities on environment to the smallest possible extent.
The way to a circular economy is also different from country to country, region to region or industry to industry. But, it always has to work for one's development. Many researches on this topic emerge in recent years, together with lots of theoretical books and practical thesis in China and overseas.
This book will start with the end of traditional economy—the waste. It goes from the compliance management of waste through material closed-loop material,
threaded by waste diversion and utilization. This book will expound on the current inflection point of circular economy, explaining the opportunities and challenges of zero waste in different industries, and at the same time, points out a feasible roadmap to zero waste.
The waste discussed in this book, for the purpose of theoretical studies, refers to a broad sense of waste including solid, liquid and gas, etc.; but when dealing with various regulations and standards, unless otherwise specified, it only refers to a narrow sense of waste mainly in solid, as a common practice. This is in correspondence with the waste in material closed loop. Due to logistics challenge, liquid and gas are rarely discussed in material closed loop.
Moreover, this book uses entropy principle in traditional thermodynamics, from the perspective of mass balance and energy consumption, to analyse the most possible theoretical result of zero waste and material closed-loop strategy and development, as well as their influence on present society.
Last but not least, zero waste-related philosophy and ethics have also been discussed a little in this book.
Shanghai, China Jianming Yang

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From Zero Waste to Material Closed Loop: The Way Towards Circular Economy
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