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The History and Culture of Beijing

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Author: Lü Shun;
Language: English
Format: Papercover
Page: 207
Publication Date: 08/2008
ISBN: 9787801684028
Publisher: Research Press
Details
Beijing is a national capital with a thousand years of history. It enjoys being a much visited world-renowned tourist center. If you are exploring the famous palace, strolling through the imperial garden, being mesmerized by the awe-inspiring temples or even wandering around the hundreds of Hutong (alleys), you cannot help but feel amazed and astonished as well as drawn in by the millennia old mystique. Your curiosity can't stop being piqued at the immensity of the history, the depth and breadth of stories and you naturally, almost unknowingly, develop a thirst to know the meaning behind the ancient relics that form the backbone of this metropolis. This book will lead back through the history of Beijing, a long and abundant gallery, along which we can walk back several thousands of years or even in some cases hundreds of thousands of years.

After such a long history, there are so many cultural relics and places of interest that are preserved in the city that they clearly and authentically record the historical development of Beijing; shouting out the changes of the times, and demonstrating the traditional Chinese culture. For instance, why ramparts are square; why the principal room in a courtyard must face south; why the imperial palace was called the Forbidden City; what kind of world view it reflects of ancient China; and what kind of national feeling leads to the wide dissemination of Buddhism. All the answers can be found in this book.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE Primitive Society(500,000 years ago-10,000 years ago)
Part One An Archaeological Discovery in Beijing - The Paleolithic Age(500,000 years ago-10,000 years ago)
Part Two An Archaeological Discovery in Beijing - The Neolithic Age(10,000 years ago-4,000 or 5,000 years ago)

CHAPTER TWO Xia & Shang Dynasties(21st Century BCE-Mid-1lth Century BCE)
Part One Beijing in the Xia Dynasty (21st Century BCE-16th Century BCE)
Part Two Ji &Yan in the Shang Dynasty (16th Century BCE - Mid-1lth Century BCE)

CHAPTER THREE Beijing in the Peridos of the Westerm Zhou Dynasty,Spring & Autumn and Warring States(Mid-11th-221 BCE)
Part One The Development of the Yan State and Ji City in the Western Zhou Dynasty(Mid-1lth Century BCE-770 BCE)
Part Two The Yan State in the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BCE-476 BCE)
Part Three The Yan State During the Warring States Period ( I ) (475 BCE-221 BCE)
Part Four The Yan State During the Warring States Period ( II ) (475 BCE-221 BCE)

CHAPTER FOUR Beijing in the Periods of the Qin and Han Dynasties(221BCE-220CE)
Part One Guangyang Shire and Ji City in the Qin Dynasty (221 BCE-202 BCE)
Part Two The State of Yan and Ji City in the Western Hart Dynasty (202 BCE-25 CE)
Part Three Beijing in the Period of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220)

CHAPTER FIVE Beijing in a Period of Altemating Political Power(220-581)
Part One Beijing in the Period of the Three Kingdoms (220-265)
Part Two Beijing in the Periods of the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties and the Northern and Southern(265-581)

CHAPTER SIX Beijing in the Periods of the Sui,Tang,and the Five Dynasties(581-960)
Part One The Zhuo Shire of the Sui Dynasty (581-618)
Part Two Youzhou Prefecture in the Period of the Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Part Three The Buddhist Temples and Taoist Temples
Part Four Youzhou in the Periods of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960)

CHAPTER SEVEN Beijing in the Periods of the Liao and Song Dynasties(960-1127)
Part One The Khitan Renamed Youzhou to Nanjing
Part Two The Establishment of the Northern Song Dynasty
Part Three The War Against Liao at the Beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty
Part Four The Southern Capital in the Liao and Song Dynasties
Part Five Beijing in the Northern Song Dynasty
Part Six The Jin Dynasty Destroyed the Northern Song Dynasty

CHAPTER EIGHT Beijing in the Jin Dynasty(1127-1234)
Pare One The Jin Dynasty Capital - Zhongdu (Beijing)
Part Two The Economic and Cultural Development of Zhongdu
Part Three Scenic Spots and Historical Sites in Zhongdu

CHAPTER NINE Beijing in the Periods of the Yuan Dynasty(1271-1368)
Part One The Establishment and Unification of the Yuan Dynasty
Part Two The Yuan Dynasty Made Dadu the Capital
Part Three The Political Situation in the Dadu Area in the Yuan Dynasty
Part Eight Beijing's Cultural Features in the Ming Dynasty
Part Nine The Peasant Uprisings in the Late Period of the Ming Dynasty and Li Zicheng Entered Beijing

CHAPTER ELEVEN Beijing in the Periods of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911)
Part One The Founding of the Qing Dynasty and Manchu Armies Marched Through the Shanhai Pass
Part Two The Political Situations under the Rule of the Qing Dynasty in Beijing
Part Three The Economic Situation in Beijing under the Rule of the Qing Dynasty
Part Four The Cultural Survey of Beijing in the Qing Dynasty
Part Five Gardens and Temples in Beijing During the Qing Dynasty

CHAPTER TWELVE Beijing in the Periods of the Republic of China(1912-1949)
Part One Beijing in the Period ofthe Northern Warlords’Rule(1912-1927)
Part Two The May Fourth Movement and the Beginning of the New—Democratic Revolution in China
Part Three The Incident in North China and the December Ninth Movement
Part Four Peiping in the Period of the Anti—Japanese War
Part Five The End of the Third Civil War and the Peaceful Liberation of Peiping
Part Six The Municipal Reconstruction and Civilian Houses in Peiping During the Period of the Republic of China
Part Seven Education in Beijing
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Sample pages of The History and Culture of Beijing (ISBN:9787801684028)

Sample pages of The History and Culture of Beijing (ISBN:9787801684028)

Preface
Beijing is a national capital with a thousand years of history. It enjoys being a much visited world-renowned tourist center. If you are exploring the famous palace, strolling through the imperial garden, being mesmerized by the awe inspiring temples or even wandering around the hundreds of Hutong (alleys), you cannot help but feel amazed and astonished as well as drawn in by the millennia old mystique. Your curiosity can't stop being piqued at the immensity of the history, the depth and breadth of stories and you naturally, almost unknowingly, develop a thirst to know the meaning behind the ancient relics that form the backbone of this metropolis. This book will lead back through the history of Beijing, a long and abundant gallery, along which we can walk back several thousands of years or even in some cases hundreds of thousands of years.During the Paleolithic Age, about five hundred thousand years ago, the first representative Beijingers presented themselves in the mountain forest, and declared their existence to the celestial bodies. These were the Sinanthropus better known as "Peking Man" (北人). As they evolved they developed the ability to manufacture various kinds of tools and mastered some production technologies, and finally developed into the Paleoanthropic whose intelligence level is considered similar to that of modern human beings. They have, through skulls and fossils, seashells, stone implements and pottery, left a trail for us to follow and discover the evolutionary processes of their life. In the 21st Century BCE, China entered the age of recorded history, at that time two small countries formed in the regions around Beijing - Ji (蓟) and Yah (燕). In the 1 l th Century BCE, the Zhou Dynasty (周朝, or Chou Dynasty) was founded, thus establishing the Kingdom ofYan (燕, also Yen) unifying the two small countries. As Yan became more and more powerful, it became one of the eponymous seven powerful states of the Warring States Period (战 In 221 BCE, the Qin Dynasty (秦朝, or Chin Dynasty) unified the whole country, and the region of Beijing became a province (county). From then on, over a thousand years, Beijing was always a capital for territorial states, and a town of military importance. This was because of its location: to the north and west of Beijing are Yanshan and Taihang mountains; to the east of city is Liaodong (辽东). These made the city the frontline of defence during the frequent invasions from the northern nomads. At the same time, the North China Plain to the south and Bohai Bay to the southeast provided convenient routes for traffic and material supply. The cradle for the development of China was mainly along the Yellow River valley; therefore, the first national capitals were Chang'an (长安) (now known as Xi'an) , Luoyang (洛阳) and Kaifeng (开封). However, with economic development, and with growing social contact and harmony between different nationalities, the influence and border of China began to widen. During the Yuan Dynasty (元朝), which was established by Mongolians, in order to control the whole country, the emperor moved the capital from Mongolia to Beijing, making it the national capital for the first of many times. In the Ming Dynasty (明朝), for the purpose of resisting the northern minorities (remnants of the Yuan Dynasty) and strengthening control of the Liaodong Area, the emperor moved the capital from Nanjing (南, or Nanking) to Beijing. For the same reason, this tradition was also adopted by Qing Dynasty emperors. So we can draw the conclusion that Beijing's selection as a capital, as far back as the Middle Ages, was not accidental but rather virtually historic inevitability. After such a long history, there are so many cultural relics and places of interest that are preserved in the city that they clearly and authentically record the historical development of Beijing; shouting out the changes of the times, and demonstrating the traditional Chinese culture. For instance, why ramparts are square; why the principal room in a courtyard must face south; why the imperial palace was called the Forbidden City; what kind of world view it reflects of ancient China; and what kind of national feeling leads to the wide dissemination of Buddhism. All the answers can be found in this book. "To understand the world today, one must understand China, and to understand China, one must understand its past."
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