Modeling and Control in Air-conditioning Systems

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Modeling Approaches in HVAC Field
1.2.1 Physics-Based Modeling Approach
1.2.2 Data-Driven Modeling Approach
1.2.3 Hybrid Modeling Approach
1.3 Proposed Methods
1.3.1 State-Space Modeling
1.3.2 Graph-Theory Modeling
1.3.3 Combined Forecasting Modeling
1.3.4 Decomposition-Coordination Algorithm for Global Optimization Model
1.3.5 Virtual Calibration for HVAC Sensors
1.3.6 Model-Based Predictive Control (MPC)
1.4 Organization of This Book

2 Component Modeling with State-Space Method
2.1 Basic Knowledge about State-Space Modeling Method
2.2 Modeling for HVAC Components
2.2.1 Water-to-Air Heat Exchanger
2.2.2 Chiller
2.2.3 Cooling Tower
2.2.4 Duct (Pipe) and Fan (Pump)
2.2.5 Air-Conditioned Room Modeling
2.3 Modeling for HVAC System
2.3.1 Component Model Connection
2.3.2 State-Space Representation for HVAC System
2.3.3 Case Study

3 Dynamic Simulations with State-Space Models
3.1 On Water-to-Air Surface Heat Exchanger
3.1.1 Subjected to Different Perturbations
3.1.2 For Different Initial Conditions
3.2 On Chiller
3.2.1 Subjected to Different Perturbations
3.2.2 For Different Initial Conditions
3.3 On Cooling Tower
3.3.1 Subjected to Different Perturbations
3.3.2 For Different Initial Conditions
3.4 On Duct and Pipe
3.4.1 On Straight-Through Duct
3.4.2 On Straight-Through Pipe
3.5 On Air-Conditioned Room
3.5.1 Basic Conditions
3.5.2 Subjected to Different Perturbations

4 Graph-Theory Modeling and Structure-Matrix Analysis
4.1 Graph-Theory Modeling for HVAC Component State-Space Models
4.1.1 Fundamental Rules
4.1.2 Case Study
4.2 Graph-Theory Modeling for HVAC System
4.2.1 Basic Method
4.2.2 Case Study
4.3 Structure-Matrix Analysis Approach
4.3.1 Model Structural Matrix
4.3.2 Reachability Analysis of Model Input-Output
4.3.3 Controllability/Observability Analysis of Model
4.3.4 Case Study

5 Virtual Measurement Modeling
5.1 Virtual Calibration
5.1.1 Conventional Calibration
5.1.2 Methodology of Virtual In Situ Calibration
5.1.3 Case Study
5.2 Virtual Sensing
5.2.1 Development Methodology for Virtual Sensing
5.2.2 Case Study
5.2.3 Model Development

6 Control Design Based on State-Space Model
6.1 Model-Based Predictive Control (MPC)
6.1.1 Introduction of MPC
6.1.2 MPC in Broad Definition
6.2 Applications of MPC in HVAC Field
6.2.1 Control of a Hybrid Ventilation Unit
6.2.2 Control of Space Thermal Conditioning
6.3 State-Space Feedback Control System Design
6.3.1 Basic Principle
6.3.2 Control System Design for Water-to-Air Heat Exchanger
6.3.3 MATLAB Simulation of the Control System
6.3.4 Control System Design for Refrigeration System

7 Combined Forecasting Models for Air-Conditioning
Load Prediction
7.1 Typical Methods
7.1.1 MLR Modeling
7.1.2 ARIMA Modeling
7.1.3 GM Modeling
7.1.4 ANN Modeling
7.2 Combined Forecasting Model Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
7.2.1 Principles of the Combined Forecasting Method
7.2.2 Determining Weights by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
7.2.3 Combined Forecasting Model for Hourly Cooling Load Prediction Using AHP
7.3 Forecasting Model Based on Neural Network and Combined Residual Error Correction
7.3.1 Model Development
7.3.2 Case Study

8 Energy Analysis Model for HVAC System
8.1 Energy Models for HVAC Components
8.1.1 Chiller
8.1.2 Boiler
8.1.3 Pump and Fan
8.1.4 Cooling Tower
8.1.5 Water-to-Air Heat Exchanger
8.2 Energy-Saving Analysis on VAV Air-Conditioning System
8.2.1 Evaluation Program for Energy Saving of VAV System
8.2.2 Case Study
8.3 Energy Analysis on VAV Air-Conditioning System with Different Air-Side Economizers
8.3.1 Scheme for Air Economizer Cycle
8.3.2 Case Study

9 Optimal Control of HVAC System Aiming at Energy Conservation
9.1 Air-Side Synergic Control
9.1.1 Background and Basic Idea
9.1.2 Mathematic Deduction of Synergic Control Model
9.1.3 Control Logic Details
9.1.4 Case Study
9.2 Global Optimization Control
9.2.1 Model Development
9.2.2 Decomposition-Coordination Algorithm for Model Solution
9.2.3 Case Study

10 Modeling and Control Strategies for VAV Systems
10.1 Background and Research Status
10.2 Modular Modeling with Simulink Tool
10.3 Model Library for Components of VAV System
10.3.1 VAV Terminal Unit
10.3.2 Variable Speed Fan
10.3.3 Air Ducts
10.3.4 Other Local Resistance Components
10.3.5 Application of Component Model Library: Case Study
10.4 Control Strategies for VAV System
10.4.1 Constant Static Pressure Method
10.4.2 Total Air Volume Method
10.4.3 Variable Static Pressure Method Based on Trim-and-Respond Logic
10.5 Control Sequences for VAV System with Different Terminal Units
10.5.1 For Cooling-Only Terminal Unit
10.5.2 For Reheat Terminal Unit
10.5.3 For Series Fan-Powered Terminal Unit
10.6 Test Script for VAV Control Study
10.6.1 Preparation
10.6.2 General Inspection of Air-Handling and Distribution System
10.6.3 Trend Data Review

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Modeling and Control in Air-conditioning Systems