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Environmental Management in China:Policies and Institutions

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Author: Wu Jing; Zhang Yixin; ;
Language: English
Page: 272
Publication Date: 10/2020
ISBN: 9787122375889
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Administration on Environmental Management 1
1.1 The History of the MEE 1
1.2 Structure and Functions of the MEE 3


Chapter 2 Evolution of China's Environmental Policy 7
2.1 In the 1970s: The Principles of National Environmental Protection 7
2.2 In the 1980s: The Principles of Three-Simultaneity and Three-Unification 8
2.3 In the 1990s: Sustainable Development 9
2.4 In the 2000s: Scientific Outlook on Development 10
2.5 In the 2010s: Ecological Civilization 12
2.6 Concluding Remarks 14
Reference 15

Chapter 3 Environmental Planning 17
3.1 The Development of Environmental Planning 17
3.2 Environmental Protection and the Plan of National Economic and Social Development 21
3.2.1 Environmental Protection During the 6th FYP (1981–1985) 23
3.2.2 Environmental Protection During the 7th FYP (1986–1990) 24
3.2.3 Environmental Protection During the 8th FYP (1991–1995) 25
3.2.4 Environmental Protection During the 9th FYP (1996–2000) 25
3.2.5 Environmental Protection During the 10th FYP (2001–2005) 26
3.2.6 Environmental Protection During the 11th FYP (2006–2010) 28
3.2.7 Environmental Protection During the 12th FYP (2011–2015) 29
3.2.8 Ecological and Environmental Protection During the 13th FYP (2016–2020) 30
3.3 The Coordination and Integration of Multiple Plans 31
References 34

Chapter 4 Environmental Impact Assessment 35
4.1 The Concept and Principles of EIA 35
4.2 The Development of EIA Globally 36
4.3 The Development of EIA in China 37
4.3.1 Initial Phase (1973–1978) 37
4.3.2 Early Implementation Phase (1979–1989) 37
4.3.3 Improvement Phase (1990–2002) 39
4.3.4 Breakthrough Phase (2003–2014) 41
4.3.5 Reform (2015–Date) 42
4.4 The Legal Framework of EIA in China 43
4.5 EIA for Project (Project EIA) 45
4.5.1 Categorization for Project EIA 46
4.5.2 Process for Project EIA 46
4.5.3 Documentation for Project EIA 46
4.5.4 Public Participation in Project EIA 48
4.5.5 Review and Decision on the EIA Documents 49
4.5.6 EIA Follow-up for Construction Project 52
4.6 Regional EIA (REIA) 53
4.7 EIA for Plan (PEIA) 54
4.7.1 Applicable Scope of PEIA 54
4.7.2 Roles and Responsibilities 55
4.7.3 Approaches and Requirements of PEIA 56
4.7.4 Public Participation in PEIA 56
4.7.5 Submission and Review of the PEIA Documents 58
4.7.6 Approval of Plan 58
4.7.7 EIA Follow-up for Plan 58
4.8 Certificate System of EIA Consultancy (Revoked in 2018) 59
4.9 Management of Qualified EIA Practitioners 60
4.10 Prospects of EIA in China 61
References 62

Chapter 5 Three Synchronizations System 63
5.1 The Development of the Three Synchronizations System 63
5.2 The Requirements of the Three Synchronizations System 66
5.2.1 Synchronous Design 66
5.2.2 Synchronous Construction 67
5.2.3 Synchronous Operation 67
5.2.4 Roles and Responsibilities 67
5.2.5 The Violation 68
References 68

Chapter 6 Emissions Charges System and Environmental Protection Tax System 69
6.1 Development of the Emissions Charges System 69
6.2 The Content of the Emissions Charges System 72
6.2.1 The Payer 72
6.2.2 Category and Amount of Pollutant Emission 72
6.2.3 Category of the Emissions Charges 72
6.2.4 Charge Rates 73
6.2.5 Collection and Utilizations of the Emissions Charges 73
6.3 The Environmental Protection Tax System 75
6.3.1 Who Pays the Environmental Protection Tax 80
6.3.2 Items Subject to the Environmental Protection Tax 80
6.3.3 Basis and Rate of the Environmental Protection Tax 82
6.3.4 Preferential Policy 83
6.3.5 Monitoring and Enforcement 83
References 84

Chapter 7 Target Responsibility System of Environmental Protection and Performance Evaluation System 85
7.1 The Formation and Development of the Target Responsibility System of Environmental Protection 85
7.2 Targets of Environmental Protection and Indicators Setting 88
7.3 Target Setting 88
7.4 Performance Evaluation 88
7.5 Shared Responsibility of Ecological and Environmental Protection for Government and Party 90
7.6 The Audit of Natural Resources Assets for Leading Cadres While Leaving Office 92
References 93

Chapter 8 Centralized Pollution Control System 95
8.1 Centralized Heating in Urban Areas 96
8.2 Centralized Pollution Control of Wastewater 97
8.3 Centralized Pollution Control of Municipal Solid Waste 100
8.3.1 Landfill 101
8.3.2 Incineration 101
References 103

Chapter 9 Emission Reporting, Registration and Permit System 105
9.1 The Formation and Development of the Emission Permit System 105
9.2 Implementation Process of the Emission Reporting, Registration, and Permit System 108
9.2.1 Reporting and Registering Pollutant Emission 108
9.2.2 Verifying Pollutant Emission 108
9.2.3 Issuing the Emission Permit 108
9.2.4 Supervision and Management for the Emission Permit 109
9.3 Essentials of the Emission Permit System 109
9.3.1 Who Shall Apply for the Emission Permit 109
9.3.2 An Integrated Emission Permit 109
9.3.3 Procedure to Apply for the Emission Permit 109
9.3.4 Conditions for Obtaining an Emission Permit 110
9.3.5 Evaluate and Determine the Allowable Emission Based on EIA Results 110
9.3.6 Self-reporting and Self-monitoring 110
9.3.7 Information Disclosure and Public Supervision 111
9.3.8 Enforcement and Responsibilities 111
9.4 Pilot Program of Emissions Trading System 113
References 114

Chapter 10 Emissions Cap System 115
10.1 Establishment and Development of the Emissions Cap System 115
10.2 Objective Classifications of Emissions Cap 119
10.2.1 Emissions Cap Based on Environmental Capacity 119
10.2.2 Emissions Cap Based on Environmental Target 119
10.2.3 Emissions Cap Based on Previous Emissions 120
10.2.4 Emissions Cap Based on Cost Benefit Analysis 120
10.3 Pollutants Classification of Emissions Cap 120
10.3.1 Emissions Cap of Water Pollutants 121
10.3.2 Emissions Cap of Air Pollutants 121
10.3.3 Emissions Cap of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea 122
10.4 Measures of Emissions Cap 122
10.4.1 Evaluations on the Emissions Cap System During the 11th FYP 122
10.4.2 Target Setting 124
10.4.3 Verification and Auditing 124
10.5 Final Remarks 125
References 126
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Preface
In China, environmental protection work was formally commenced in 1973.Through continuous learning process of exploration, execution, review, and amendment on the implementation of environmental protection work, a set of environmental management system, conforming to China's national conditions, has been gradually established to provide effective assurance for strengthening environmental protection. During the initial stage of China's environmental protection work, from 1973 to 1979, the "Three Synchronizations", the "Environmental Impact Assessment", and the "Emission Fees for Noncompliance", also known as the "Three Old Management Schemes", were put forward and implemented to find the basis of administrative management system for China's environmental protection work and to denote the institutionalization of China's environmental protection work. In addition, the Three Old Management Schemes had generated significant effects on pollution prevention and control for existing and new pollution sources to greatly promote the establishment and execution of China's environmental protection work. In 1989, during the Third National Conference on Environmental Protection, through the experience learned from the practice of environmental protection work and the establishment of environmental management system, the idea that the pathway of China's environmental protection work should be in line with China's national conditions was put forward. Thus, five different environmental management schemes, including the "Liability System for EnvironmentalProtection Objectives", the "Quantitative Performance Evaluation on Comprehensive Environmental Governance for Urban Environment", the "Centralization of Pollution Control", "Deadline for Attainment", and the "Emission Permit", also known as the "Five New Management Schemes", were promulgated. And the basic institutional framework of China's environmental management was then founded on these eight environmental management schemes, including the Three Old Management Schemes and the Five New Management Schemes.
In the twenty-first century, as the emphasis of environmental protection was gradually shifted from governing pollution to improving environmental quality and promoting environmental service functions, the orientation of environmental management was inevitably adjusted from pollution control to the enhancement of environmental quality. And, the perception of environmental protection was then changed from abating pollution to preventing pollution, including: To put environmental protection first, to promote environmental service functions, and to enhance the production capacity of ecological goods. Consequently, several effective environmental management systems and measures were progressively promulgated and implemented. For example, in the "Total Emission Cap", emission cap was determined for major pollutants as the binding indicator to be incorporated into the National Economic and Social Development Plan. In the "Environmental Monitoring and Emergency Response Management System", six regional Environmental Protection Supervision Centers, including North, East, South, North East, North West, and South West, were set up, directly under the Ministry of Environmental Protection (the MEP), to deal with the cross-regional and crosswatershed environmental regulatory issues. In the Law of the People's Republic of China on Promoting Cleaner Production and the Law of the People's Republic of China on Promoting Circular Economy, pollution control on sources and processes was stipulated. In the "Information Disclosure and Public Participation", environmental information disclosure and public participation in environmental impact assessment were continuously strengthened. In the "Environmental Economy Policy System", a framework consisting of green credit, insurance, trade, price of electricity, stock, taxation, etc. was constructed prelimi-narily. Meanwhile, some environmental management schemes incompatible with social and economic development were gradually phased out. For example, "Quantitative Performance Evaluation on Integrated Environmental Governance for Cities" was terminated in 2012, and the "Deadline for Attainment" was deleted from the 2014 Amendment of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Protection (the EP Law 2014).

Tianjin, China Jing Wu
Huhhot, China I-Shin Chang
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