Conversion Technologies for Biomass to Renewable Energy (No.6 of New Energy Frontier)

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Author: Cheng Jiayang;
Language: English
Format: 24 x 17 x 1.4 cm
Page: 258
Publication Date: 02/2017
ISBN: 9787030447258
Publisher: Science Press
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Biomass resources(Guangqing Liu and Jay J.Cheng)
1.1 Organic waste materials
1.1.1 Animal manure
1.1.2 Municipal solid organic waste
1.1.3 Industrial organic waste
1.2 Agricultural residues
1.2.1 Rice straw
1.2.2 Corn stover
1.2.3 Wheat straw
1.2.4 Other agricultural residues
1.3 Oil and grease
1.3.1 Plant oils
1.3.2 Oil—rich algae
1.3.3 Waste oils and fats
1.4 References
Chapter 2 Biomass logistics(Guangqing Liu and Maurycy Daroch(microalgae))
2.1 Feed stock production
2.1.1 Forestry waste
2.1.2 Herbaceous biomass
2.1.3 Algal biomass cultivation
2.2 Harvesting
2.2.1 Livestock and poultry manure collection
2.2.2 Collection,storage and transportation of urban household organic waste
2.2.3 Forestry biomass storage and transportation
2.2.4 Crop straw collection
2.2.5 Algae harvesting and dewatering
2.3 Transport
2.4 Storage
2.5 References
Chapter 3 Biogas production(Guangqing Liu)
3.1 Anaerobic digestion:principles for biogas production
3.1.1 Two—stage theory of anaerobic digestion
3.1.2 Calculation of theoretical methane yield in anaerobic digestion
3.1.3 Microorganisms in anaerobic digestion
3.1.4 Inhibition mechanism of intermediate product in anaerobic digestion process
3.2 Biogas production at different temperatures
3.2.1 Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion
3.2.2 Mesophilic anaerobic digestion
3.2.3 Thermophilic anaerobic digestion
3.3 Anaerobic digesters
3.3.1 Anaerobic biological pond
3.3.2 Continuously stirred tank reactor
3.3.3 Up—flow anaerobic sludge blanket digester
3.3.4 Anaerobic fiher
3.3.5 Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor
3.4 H2S removal from biogas
3.5 Biogas power generation
3.5.1 Development status of China and abroad
3.5.2 Process of biogas power generation
3.6 Purification of biogas for automobile fuel production
3.6.1 Research on the CO2 scrubbing from biogas
3.6.2 Research on dehydration of biogas
3.7 References
Chapter 4 Biodiesel production{Maurycy Daroch)
4.1 Principles of biodiesel production
4.2 Characterisation of biodiesel feedstocks
4.3 Transesterification
4.3.1 Transesterification process and catalysts
4.3.2 Alkaline catalysis
4.3.3 Acid catalysis
4.3.4 Enzyme:lipase
4.4 Biodiesel production from vegetable oils
4.5 Biodiesel production from waste oil and grease
4.6 Biodiesel production from microalgal oil
4.6.1 Oil extraction from microalgae
4.6.2 Chartacteristics of algal lipids and biodieset production methods
4.6.3 By—products from microalgae
4.7 Net energy production from different biodiesel processes
4.8 References
Chapter 5 Bioethanol production(Sabih Farooq and Jay J.Cheng)
5.1 History of ethanol as fuel
5.2 Current ethanol production
5.2.1 Feedstock for ethanol production
5.2.2 Ethanol production processes
5.3 Environmental impact of current ethanol production
5.4 Lignoeellulosie ethanol
5.4.1 Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
5.4.2 Hydrolysis
5.4.3 Fermentation and distillation
5.4.4 Future perspective
5.5 References
Chapter 6 Direct combustion of biomass(Guangqing Liu and Shu Geng)
6.1 Process of biomass combustion
6.1.1 Combustion characteristics
6.1.2 Combustion conditions
6.1.3 Combustion process
6.2 Traditional biomass combustion systems
6.2.1 Biomass stove
6.2.2 Layer burn
6.2.3 Fluidized bed technology
6.3 Advanced biomass stove
6.3.1 Biomass granulation
6.3.2 Improved combustion of biomass granules
6.4 References
Chapter 7 Biomass gasification(Guangqing Liu)
7.1 Principles of gasification
7.1.1 Biomass gasification process
7.1.2 Gasification indicators
7.1.3 The main factors influencing biomass gasification
7.2 Biomass gasifiers
7.2.1 Upflow gasifier
7.2.2 Downflow gasifier
7.2.3 Fluidized—bed gasifier
7.3 Syngas clean—up
7.4 Conversion of syngas to products
7.5 Net energy production from gasification processes
7.5.1 Project overview
7.5.2 Process technology
7.5.3 Results and analysis
7.5.4 Conclusion
7.6 References
Chapter 8 Biomass pyrolysis(Guangqing Liu)
8.1 Principles of pyrolysis
8.1.1 Concept of pyrolysis
8.1.2 Pyrolysis mechanism
8.1.3 Influence factors
8.2 Common pyrolysis process
8.3 Pyrolysis products refinery
8.3.1 Drying
8.3.2 Crushing
8.3.3 Pyrolysis
8.3.4 The separation of product char and ash
8.3.5 The cooling of gaseous bio—oil
8.3.6 Bio—oil collection
8.4 Applications of pyrolysis products
8.4.1 Bio—oil
8.4.2 Bio—char
8.5 Net energy production from the pyrolysis processes
8.5.1 The project
8.5.2 The significance and purpose of the project
8.5.3 Technology and indicators
8.5.4 Demonstration project operation situation analysis
8.6 References
Chapter 9 Environmental impacts and life cycle assessment(Ting Feng,Shu Geng and Maurycy Daroch)
9.1 Introduction to life cycle assessment
9.1.1 What is life cycle assessment?
9.1.2 The systems approach of life cycle assessment
9.1.3 The database of life cycle assessment
9.1.4 The function of life cycle assessment
9.1.5 The limitations of life cycle assessment
9.2 Life cycle assessment approaches
9.2.1 Gabi Software
9.2.2 SimaPro
9.2.3 GREET Model
9.2.4 Clarens' research
9.2.5 Stephenson's research
9.2.6 Sander's research
9.2.7 Summary
9.3 Life cycle assessment of different biofuel production processes
9.3.1 Life cycle assessment of energy balance
9.3.2 Carbon cycle of biofuel production
9.4 Environmental impacts of different renewable energy production processes
9.5 References
Sample Pages Preview
Although flocculated algal biomass forms much bigger particles than—individual cells it still has comparable density to water(Uduman et al.,2010)and wiil therefore require an additional mechanical method to facilitate separation.Moreover,flocculation is a technique that is largely limited to freshwater algae.High ionic strength in marine environment yields flocculation of marine microalgae ineffective as concentrations of inorganic flocculants in a range of five to ten times higher are required to obtain similar effect as observed for freshwater microalgae(Sukenik et al.,1988).
Filtration is another method used in algal biomass harvesting(Christenson and Sims,2011; Uduman et al.,2010).It is especially effective when applied to filamentous algae which exhibit larger surface area than unicellular organisms.During filtration culture medium is passed through a permeable medium,usually membrane,which retains the biomass.Culture water is recovered at the other end of the membrane and often recycled.Many filtration designs have been tested but two of them are particularly high interest for harvesting algal biomass: cross flow filtration and microstrainers(Christenson and Sims,2011; Uduman et al.,2010).Cross flow filtration is a filtration setup where culture medium flows tangentially across the membrane that retains the biomass allowing the culture medium to be gradually removed across the membrane and biomass to be concentrated.Cross flow filtration has a number of advantages over standard dead—end filtration.Firstly,pressure applied to the membrane is much smaller what translates into energy savings when compared with other filtration methods; secondly,this design is less susceptible to clogging and cake formation that is common when using dead—end filtration; thirdly,fficiencies of this type of filtration are fairly high and can reach between 70 and 90%(Petrusevski et al.,1995).Although membrane fiitration proves effective at small scale it can yield technical problems when applied to large scale algae harvesting,Most common problems are membrane fouling and clogging and fairly large energy requirement for pumping algal biomass across the membrane even in cross—flow system(Christenson and Sims,2011; Uduman et al.,2010)
Conversion Technologies for Biomass to Renewable Energy (No.6 of New Energy Frontier)