China's New Urbanization Developmental Paths, Blueprints and Patterns

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Table of Contents
1 China's New Urbanization and Development Bottlenecks
1.1 Stages of China's Urbanization
1.1.1 Change of View of China's Urbanization from Three—Stage to Four—Stage
1.1.2 Urbanization in China Experiences Faster than World's Average Development
1.2 Overall Evaluation of China's Urbanization
1.2.1 China's Urbanization Is Sub—healthy, "Urban Diseases" Prevail
1.2.2 The Sub—healthiness of China's Urbanization Does not Indicate Pseudo—urbanization
1.3 Resource and Environment Constraints for China's New Urbanization
1.3.1 The Four Increasingly Severe Resource and Environment Constraints
1.3.2 Suggestions to Relax Resource and Environment Constraints for China's New Urbanization
1.4 The Paradox of New Urban District Construction Versus New Urbanization
1.4.1 The Great Achievements of New Urban District Construction in China
1.4.2 New Urban District Construction Characterized as "Too Much" and "Too Big".
1.4.3 Reasons for Unplanned Constructions and Expansions of New Urban Districts
1.4.4 The Scientific Path for Appropriate New Urban Districts Construction in China
2 The Developmental Strategies and Basic Principles for China's New Urbanization
2.1 Fundamental Meaning and Strategic Background of China's New Urbanization
2.1.1 Comparison of the Fundamental Meaning Between New and Traditional Urbanization
2.1.2 Strategic Background for Promoting New Urbanization
2.2 Strategic Transition of China's New Urbanization
2.2.1 Fundamental Principles for Transition to New Urbanization in China
2.2.2 Strategic Transition of New Urbanization: From Rate to Quality
2.2.3 Strategic Developmental Directions for the New Urbanization
2.3 Strategic Path for China's New Urbanization Development
2.3.1 High Efficiency Path: Economic Sustainability for Smart City
2.3.2 Low—Carbon Path: Pollution Reduction Sustainability for Low—Carbon City
2.3.3 Ecologic Urbanization Path: Ecological Sustainability for Ecological Civil City
2.3.4 Environmental Protection Path: Environmental Sustainability for Environment—Friendly City
2.3.5 Resource—Saving Path: Resource Sustainability for Resource—Saving City
2.3.6 Creative Path: Science and Technology Sustainability for Creative City
2.3.7 Intelligent Path: Knowledge Sustainability for Intelligent City
2.3.8 Safe Path: Societal Sustainability for Safe City
2.4 Strategic Guidelines for China's New Urbanization Development
2.4.1 The Evolving Course of China's Urbanization Guidelines
2.4.2 Weakness and Limitation of Current Urbanization Guidelines
2.4.3 Strategic Guidelines for the New Urbanization
3 Basic Modes for China's New Urbanization Development
3.1 The Generic Transition Mode for China's New Urbanization Development
3.1.1 Appropriate and Compact Urbanization
3.1.2 Resources and Energy Conserving Urbanization
3.1.3 Eco—Environmental Friendly Urbanization
3.1.4 Urbanization Within Local Constraints and Conditions
3.1.5 Urbanization Without Sacrificing Rural Development
3.1.6 Comprehensive and Open Driven Urbanization
3.2 Differentiating Mode for China's New Urbanization
3.2.1 "Endogenous Circulating" Mode for New Urbanization in Agricultural Regions
3.2.2 "City Dwelling—Pasture Grazing" Mode for Pastoral Regions
3.2.3 "Urbanization Based on Mining" Mode for Mining Regions
3.2.4 "Merging Residential Zones with Local Towns" Mode for Mixed Agriculture—Forestry—Pastoral (Field) Regions
3.3 The Gradual Mode for China's New Urbanization
3.3.1 Fundamental Thoughts for China's Gradual Urbanization
3.3.2 Autonomous Mode for Gradual Urbanization
3.3.3 Shareholding Mode for Gradual Urbanization
3.3.4 Homestead Replacement Mode for Gradual Urbanization
3.3.5 New Rural Communities Construction Mode for Gradual Urbanization
4 Spatial Pattern of China's New Urbanization
4.1 Urban Agglomeration—Led "Axes Connect Agglomerations" Spatial Pattern
4.1.1 Central Government Regards Urban Agglomeration as the Spatial Subject for New Urbanization for the First Time
4.1.2 Main Issues Concerning China's Urban Agglomeration Selection
4.1.3 The "5 9 6" Urban Agglomeration Spatial Pattern
4.1.4 The New Urbanization Macro Spatial Pattern Characterized by "Axes Connect Agglomerations, Agglomerations Support Axes".
4.2 Collaborative Development Among Large, Medium and Small Cities to Form a New Pyramid—Like Spatial Organization
4.2.1 Evaluation of the Current Pyramid—Like Spatial Organization
4.2.2 New Pyramid—Like Spatial Organization in the Future
4.2.3 Establishing Ethnic Autonomous Municipalities and Embedding into National New Urbanization Pattern
5 Comprehensive Regionalization for China's New Urbanization Development
5.1 Foundation and Process for Comprehensive Regionalization of China's New Urbanization
5.1.1 Research Progress on Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.1.2 Qualitative Foundation and Path for Comprehensive Regionalization
5.2 Principles and Approaches of Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.2.1 Principles of Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.2.2 Research Approaches for Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.3 The Basic Schemes and Promoting Approaches for Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.3.1 The Basic Schemes for Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
5.3.2 The Promotion Measures for Comprehensive Regionalization for New Urbanization
6 Quality of China's New Urbanization and Ways for Improvement
6.1 Relationships Between Urbanization Quality, Speed, and Level
6.1.1 Evolution for Urbanization Quality
6.1.2 Dynamic Conversion Between Urbanization Quality and Level
6.1.3 Interaction Between Urbanization Quality and Rate
6.1.4 Quadrant Graphs Describing Urbanization Quality, Rate, and Level
6.2 Measuring Urbanization Quality
6.2.1 The Three Dimension Indicator System Measuring Urbanization Quality
6.2.2 Evaluation Standard and Basis for Urbanization Quality
6.2.3 Comprehensive Measuring Model for Urbanization Quality
6.3 Comprehensive Evaluation and Spatial Distribution of China's Urbanization Quality
6.3.1 China's Urbanization Quality is at the Middle Level
6.3.2 Characteristics of Dynamic Conversion for China's Urbanization Quality
6.3.3 Spatial Distribution of China's Urbanization Quality
6.3.4 Classification of China's Urbanization Quality
6.3.5 Components of China's Urbanization Quality
6.3.6 Association Among Urbanization Quality, City Size, and Urbanization Level
6.4 Ways for Improving Urbanization Quality
6.4.1 Safe Mode to Balancing Urbanization Rate and Quality
6.4.2 Differentiating Mode to Improving Urbanization Quality Based on Local Conditions
6.4.3 Intensive Mode to Reducing External Costs by Economic Development
6.4.4 Fair Mode Stressing Integrated Urban and Rural Development
6.4.5 Multidimensional Evaluating Mode to Focusing on Quality Instead of Quantity
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Third, local governments rely too much on land financing, which also expedites the new district construction.Our studies found that, under the existing fiscal system, about 30—35 % of prefecture—level cities' revenue, and about 50—70 % of the county—level cities and county's revenue comes from land and real estate development income.This is typical land finances.Once the government stops to transfer land usage right, the government could be "weaned" and the local fiscal system could even crash.In order to avoid financial crisis, the government will do everything possible to sell the land through a variety of ways.Since the old town often has very little land to transfer, developing new district become a natural choice, which also leads to rapid construction of new urban districts.From this aspect, it can be seen that a vicious cycle of land finance dependence and the debt crisis is the fundamental motivation for building more and big new urban districts.
Fourth, the regulatory loophole also encouraged and spawned the constructions of new urban districts.The national New Urbanization plan proposed that by 2020, the average national urbanization level will reach 60 %.To provinces, cities and counties that currently have lower urbanization level, 60 % became a benchmark.The simplest way to reach the benchmark, to these local officials' understanding, is to quickly move the farmers into the city, which makes construction of the new urban districts necessary.In general, there are two ways to increase construction land: The first is a proper way by revising the overall urban planning, which is regulated by Town and Country Planning Act.Once the revision is properly evaluated it can be determined whether it will be approved.Even if it is approved, the revision cycle is long, slow, and the total increase is limited (this is because during the planning period, new construction land area cannot exceed 20—30 % of the current built up area).So the proper way was rarely used.The second way is to bypass the Town and Country Planning Act and other regulatory constraints, the government will determine the revision in the form of the minutes of government executive meetings.The decision to start building all types of new districts will then need no assessment, no approval, everything is then "what they say goes." This government monopoly procedure of first acquiring and occupying the land, then attract the investors, and then start the production, and finally fill out construction land approval procedures is the very source of all of the chaotically proposed new urban district construction.If this loophole was not blocked, the chaotic and blind expansion and construction of new districts would not stop (20).
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