A Phonetic Study of the Vowels in Ningbo Chinese

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Author: Hu Fang;
Language: English
Page: 440
Publication Date: 04/2014
ISBN: 9787516141922
Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction 
1.1 General theoretical background of vowel production 
1.2 Purpose and the scope of this study 
1.3 Introduction of Ningbo Chinese 
1.4 Outline of the study 
Chapter Two: The acoustic phonetic values of the Ningbo vowels 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Methodology 
2.2.1 Test material 
2.2.2 Speakers and recording 
2.2.3 Data analysis 
2.3 Results and discussion 
2.3.1 Results and discussion of the Ningbo normal—length vowels An overview Vowel height Vowel backness Lip rounding 
2.3.2 Results of the Ningbo short vowels 
2.3.3 Acoustic characteristics of the Ningbo apical vowels 
2.3.4 Vowel normalization and discussion on the sex difference 
2.4 Conclusion 
Chapter Three: An acoustic phonetic analysis of the Ningbo diphthongs and triphthong 
3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Methodology 
3.2.1 Test material 
3.2.2 Speakers and recording 
3.2.3 Data analysis 
3.3 Results and discussion 
3.3.1 Duration results and discussion 
3.3.2 Spectral results and discussion 
3.3.3 Dynamic aspects 
3.4 Conclusion and general discussion 
Chapter Four: An articulatory analysis of the Ningbo vowels 
4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Methodology 
4.2.1 Speakers and test material 
4.2.2 Equipment 
4.2.3 Procedures 
4.2.4 Analysis 
4.3 Results and discussion 
4.3.1 Lingual configurations of the Ningbo normal—length vowels 
4.3.2 A PARAFAC modeling 
4.3.3 Jaw opening and its coordination with tongue movements 
4.3.4 Lip rounding 
4.3.5 Articulatory characteristics of the Ningbo short vowels 
4.3.6 Articulation of the Ningbo apical vowels 
4.4 Conclusion 
Chapter Five: An artieulatory analysis of the Ningbo diphthongs and triphthong 
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Methodology 
5.2.1 Speakers and test material 
5.2.2 Equipment and procedures 
5.2.3 Analysis 
5.3 Results and discussion 
5.3.1 Diphthong targets and their movement Articulation of the falling diphthongs 
A.Diphthong (ai) 
B.Diphthong (au) 
C.Diphthong (cey) 
A Summary of the articulation for the falling Diphthongs in Ningbo Articulation of the rising diphthongs 
D.Diphthong (ia) 
E.Diphthong (ie?) 
F.Diphthong (io) 
G.Diphthong (yo?) 
H.Diphthong (ua) 
I.Diphthong (ua?) 
J.Diphthong (ue) 
A Summary of the articulation for the rising diphthongs in Ningbo 
A Summary of the diphthong production in Ningbo Articulation of the triphthong 
5.3.2 Articulator kinematics of the diphthongs Average velocity Peak velocity and the time to peak velocity 
5.4 Conclusion 
Chapter Six: Acoustic, artieulatory, and aerodynamic aspects of the nasal vowels and vowel nasalization in Ningbo Chinese 
6.1 Introduciton 
6.2 The acoustic and articulatory studies 
6.2.1 Procedures 
6.2.2 Results and discussion Spectral results The articulatory configurations of the nasal vowels 
6.2.3 Summary 
6.3 The aerodynamic study 
6.3.1 Methodological considerations 
6.3.2 Procedures 
6.3.3 Results and discussion 
6.3.3.I The temporal structure of the nasal vowels and vowel nasalization Nasality of the nasal vowels and vowel Nasalization in Ningbo 
6.3.4 Summary 
6.4 Conclusion 
Chapter Seven: Conclusion and general discussion 
7.1 Vowel features from the acoustic, articulatory, 
and aerodynamic perspectives 
7.1.1 Vowel height and vowel backness 
7.1.2 Lip rounding 
7.1.3 Nasality 
7.1.4 Duration 
7.1.5 Apical vowels 
7.2 Articulation and acoustics of diphthongs 
7.3 General discussion of the articualtory—to—acoustic relations 
Appendix Ⅰ: Ningbo Vowel formant data 
Appendix Ⅱ: Ningbo diphthong formant data 
Appendix Ⅲ: Ningbo triphthong formant data 
Appendix Ⅳ: The articulatory data for the Ningbo diphthongs 
Appendix Ⅴ: The artieulatory data for the Ningbo triphthong 
A Phonetic Study of the Vowels in Ningbo Chinese