A Brief History of China-U.S.Relations 1784-2013

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Exchanges
1.1 Early Trade and Cultural Exchanges
1.2 The Treaty of Wanghia and the Establishment of
Relations Between China and the U.S.
1.3 Controversy over the Burlingame Treaty
1.4 Exclusion of Chinese and the Issue of Chinese Labor in the United States
Chapter 2 The Open—door Policy and Its Implementation
2.1 The Open—door Policy: The Gap Between Policy and Pracuce
2.2 The United States and the 1911 Revolution
2.3 The Paris Peace Conference: A Proud Day for Chinese
Chapter 3 The Washington Conference: The United States and Wars and Revolution in China
3.1 The Washington Conference and Setding of the Shandong Issue
3.2 The United States, Wars and Revolution in China in the 1920s
3.3 The U.S.and the Nanjing Nationalist Government
Chapter 4 The 1930s: Toward a China—U.S.Alliance Against Japanese Aggression
4.1 From Liutiao Lake to Marco Polo Bridge
4.2 The Nationalist Government “Clings Onin Hope of Rescue”
4.3 Toward an Alliance Against Japanese Aggression
4.4 The Early War Period, CPC Non—Governmental Contacts with the U.S.
Chapter 5 Wartime Allies
5.1 The Rocky Road of Military Cooperation
5.2 Building a Special Relationship
5.3 The U.S.Army Observer Section in Yan'an
5.4 Shift in U.S.Policy Toward China
5.5 The Yalta Conference, the United States and the Sino—Soviet Treaty
Chapter 6 U.S.Involvement in China's Civil War
6.1 The Marshall Mediation
6.2 The China Aid Act of 1948
6.3 Toward Confrontation
Chapter 7 The Age of Confrontation and Isolation
7.1 Confrontation in Korea
7.2 American Containment of China
7.3 Two Crises in the Taiwan Strait
7.4 China—U.S.Ambassadorial Talks
Chapter 8 A Slow Thaw
8.1 Changes in China's Diplomacy
8.2 Adjustmentin U.S.Policy Toward China
8.3 A Historic Handshake
Chapter 9 Difficult Normalization
9.1 Stagnation
9.2 Normalization
9.3 The Taiwan Relations Act
9.4 The Birth of the August 17 Communique
9.5 China Reiterates Its Independent Foreign Policy
Chapter 10 Renormalization of China—U.S.Relations in the Post Cold War Era
10.1 U.S.Pressure Follows 1989 Turmoilin Beijing
10.2 Drastic Changes Across the Taiwan Strait
10.3 Heads of State Visits
10.4 Disaster Out of the Blue
10.5 China's Accession to the WTO and U.S.Legislation on PNTR for China
Chapter 11 China—U.S.Relations in the New Century
11.1 Establishing Constructive and Cooperative Relations
11.2 Maintaining Stability in the Taiwan Strait Region
11.3 Continuing to Promote Mutually Beneficial and Win—Win Trade and Economic Relations
11.4 Cooperation on Regional and International Issues
Conclusion Toward a New Model of Major—Country Relationship

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The refund negotiations were hampered in 1905, when the boycott movement broke out in China in response to the harsh “Chinese Exclusion Act.” Related work went on nonetheless.After the Congregational missionary Arthur Smith learned in 1906 that the United States would refund part of the Indemnity to China, he formulated a plan to use it to assist Chinese students studying in the U.S.and to develop Church schools in China, thus linking the refund with prevention of any recurrence of attempted revolutionary movement like the Boxers.This went down well with church leaders.Smith personally presented the plan to President Roosevelt, who also approved it.Meanwhile, the U.S.Minister to China Rockhill had also described America's intentions to the Qing government.After repeated representations and debate in Congress, President Roosevelt signed the bill in 1908.The U.S.was entided to receive US$13,655,492.69, of which US$10,785,286.12 was to be returned to China.According to the plan at the time, between 1909 and 1940,a total refund of US$28,922,519.55 would be remitted, and the remission would start as of 1909.On December 31, U.S.Secretary of State Elihu Root formally notified the Qing government of this.

A Brief History of China-U.S.Relations 1784-2013