Temple of Heaven

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Table of Contents
Chapter Ⅰ Approacliing Temple of Heavcn 
[1] Heavenly Shrines 
[2] Circular Mound Altar in the Ming Dynasty and Hall of Grand Sacrifice 
[3] The Building Complex of Temple of Heaven in the Qing Dynasty 
Chapter Ⅱ Heaven Worship and Southern Suburhan Sacrificial Ceremonies in Ancient China 
[1] Heaven Worship and Rituals of the Suburban Sacrificial Ceremonies in Ancient China 
[2] Altars for Suburban Sacrifice in the Central Capital of Jin Dynasty and Those in Beijing During Ming and Qing Dynasties 
Chapter Ⅲ Tile Origin of Thc Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests 
[1] From the Hall of Grand Sacrifice to the Hall of Grand Worship 
[2] From the Traditional Mingtang to the Hall of Grand Worship in the Temple of Heaven During the Ming and Qing Dynasties 
[3] From Sacrifice to Houji to the Altar of Praying for Bumper Harvests and the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests 
Chapter Ⅳ Thc Circular Mouund and the Temple of Heaven 
[1] The Ancient Circular Mound and the Origin of the Name of the Temple of Heaven 
[2] A Circumference of Nine Ii Thirty Bu 
Chapter Ⅴ the Construction of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests 
[1] The Base of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests and the Altar of Praying for Bumper Harvests 
Ⅰ.the Base of the Hall 
Ⅱ.Altar of Praying for Bumper Harvests 
1.Altar of Praying for Bumper Harvests 
2.the Railings 
3.the Steps 
4.the Column Base 
[2] The Carpentry-Work Beam 
Ⅰ.the Columns and the Architraves 
2.Columns in Special Positions 
3.the Architraves On top of the Columns 
4.Ties in Special Positions 
Ⅱ.the Beam Framework 
1.the Beams 
2.the Purlins and Ties Above the Beams 
Ⅲ.Leigong Posts,Queen Posts and Youqiang 
[3] The Bracket Sets 
1.the Classification of Bracket Sets 
2.the Bracket Sets At the Lower Eaves 
3.the Bracket Sets At the Middle Eaves 
4.the Bracket Sets At the Upper Eaves 
5.the Distinction Among the Brackets At the Upper,Middle and Lower Eaves of Different Grades 
[4] The Roofing 
1.the Rafters and the Roofing Board 
2.the Mortar Bed,the Tiles and the Tile Ornaments 
3.the Rooftop 
[5] Joinery Decoration 
1.the Decoration of the Doors and Windows 
2.the Ceilings and the Caisson 
[6] Colored Painting 
1.Colored Painting At the Exterior Eaves 
2.Colored Painting At the interior Eaves 
[7] Other Components 
1.the Wall Under the Window 
2.the "Sacred Altar" inside the Hall 
Chapter Ⅵ the Circular Mound Altar and Its Auxiliary Buildings 
[1] Evolution in Shape of the Imperial Vault of Heaven 
[2] The Echo Wall 
[3] The Circular Mound Altar 
Chapter Ⅶ Auxiliary Buildings of the Temple of Heaven 
[1] Hall of Imperial Zenith 
[2] Divine Kitchen,Divine Depot and Animal-Sacrifice Pavilion 
[3] Hall of Abstinence 
[4] Office of Divine Music 
Chapter Ⅷ Art and Symbolism of Architecture in the Temple Ofheaven 
[1] Spatial Art of Architecture in the Temple of Heaven 
[2] Symbolic Meanings of the Temple of Heaven 
Annex: Major Events Concerning Sacrifice At the Temple of Heaven By the Ming and Qing Emperors,and Its Changes 
List of Illustrations
Sample Pages Preview

Sample pages of Temple of Heaven (ISBN:7302290903, 9787302290902) 

Sample pages of Temple of Heaven (ISBN:7302290903, 9787302290902) 

Perceptibly,in ancient Chineseminds,the sons of Heaven who reigned thecountry had the infinite and far-reachingpower.Whereas,their power were enduedby the Heaven.To ensure that they canmaintain the power,one of their importantresponsibilities is to worship and offertheir sacrifices to the sovereign Heaven inan attempt to God's mercy and blessing.Furthermore,China is an agriculturalcountry whose disaster or fortune,bumperor poor harvest,completely rests withthe Heaven's will.Emperors in the pastdynasties had to worship the Heaven withreverence and awe,and lived under selfcommunion and self-accusation hoping forall propitious elements and a prosperousand peaceful country.
That is one of the main reasons whyemperors think a lot of on the Heavenworship and sacrifice-offering. 
Here,we need to shift the courseand bring another subject on the carpet.We may ask,since the Heaven has thesupreme power,why,during the earlyMing Dynasty,did the founding emperor,Zhu Yuanzhang,order to construct theTemple of Heaven and the Temple ofEarth together,hold ceremonies ofworshiping the Heaven as well as theEarth,and build Hall of Grand Sacrificefor this purpose? Does the Earth possessthe same power? 
Actually,it is necessary to inductanother important ancient Chinese idea.Inancient Chinese peoples' minds,althoughthe Heaven may have the similar po.wer asthe supreme god in Western Christianity orAllah in Islamism having absolute powerover the world life,there is differencebetween them.The Chinese always held onedichotomy method of thinking,namely anything has its opposition existence at the sametime,in harmonious coexistence,thus tomanifest the world's substance.For instance,yin and yang,qian and kun,brightness anddarkness,gain and loss,and so on.Heavenand Earth,whether in natural or supernaturalconsciousness,have also been integrated intothis category. 
We can comprehend this easily byancient words: 
Nothing better than following Heaven.There is the alternation of day and night,spring and winter,rain-dew and frostsnow.By heart,to open therefore to close,to consume therefore to rest,to be killedtherefore to live.The Earth never goes withoutthe Heaven concerned; the Heaven can neverbear from nothing without the Earth.
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