Selected Works of Modern Chinese Learning: Modern Democracy In China

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One hundred years ago, Zhang Zhidong tried to advocate Chinese learning by saying: 'The course of a nation, be it bright or gloomy, the pool of talents, be it large or small, are about governance on the surface, and about learning at the root. ' At that time, the imperialist powers cast menacing eyes on our country, and the domestic situation was deteriorating. The quick infiltration of Western learning made the long-standing Chinese tradition come under heavy challenge.
Table of Contents
I. Introduction : The Crisis and the Problem
The Rise of Democracy
The Triumph of the Republic
The Return of Monarchy
The Struggle over the Constitution
The Civil War
The Provisional Constitution——and Its Defects
The Lessons of the Decade
The Abolition of the Tuchun System
The Framing and Adoption of the Permanent Constitution
The Perils and the Salvation
Cabinet vs. Presidential System: Cabinet System
Cabinet vs. Presidential System : Presidential System
Federal vs. Unitary System: Federal System
Federal vs. Unitary System : Unitary System
Legislature : Its Structure and Composition
Legislature : Its Functions add Powers
Executive: His Election
Executive: His Powers
Judiciary: Its Independence and Functions
Provincial Autonomous Government
Local Self-Government

XXIII. Budget:lts Funotions anclProcedure
XXIV. Political Partie8: Their Functions and Req-rusites
XXV. Prnra,te Rights: Their Enumeration and Guarantees
XXVI. NationalConvention
XXVII. A Permanent Constitution for China

I. Constitutional Documents Under Manohu Regime
II. The Prorrisiolusl Constitution
III. The Constitutional Cornpaot, 1914
IV. Goodnow's Memorandum
V. Goodnow's Constitutian
VI. The NationalConstitution,1917
VII. The City Charter of Canton
Sample Pages Preview
The National Assembly, the forerunner of Parliament, wasconvoked on October 3, 1910. Though unicameral, it con-sisted of the elements of two Chambers, the representatives of the privileged classes to serve as the foundation of the Upper House, and those from the Provincial Assemblies as that of the Lower House.
An immediate consequence of the opening of the ProvincialAssemblies was theimpetus afforded to the morrement for an early comrocation of National Parliament and the adoption ofa constitution. In December, 1910,in response to the popularclamor for an effective control of the reins of the government,and protection of the rights of the people against the perils of Westem aressions, some fifty delegates from. the ProvincialAssemblies met in Shanghai, and, after holding preliminaryconferences, proceeded to Peking. 
They petitioned the Throne to grant an early convocation of National Assembly, whichwas, however, rerected. 
Another endeavor was made, only tomeet a like refusal."
Meanwhile, as the National Assembly opened, within aweek of its convocation,it took up the question of the earlyassem'oling of a National Parliament. 
On October 22, amidstextraordinary enthusiasm, a resolution was adopted praying theThrone to call the Parhament at an early date.
Selected Works of Modern Chinese Learning: Modern Democracy In China