China's Tibetan Medicine

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Author: Cai Jingfeng;
Language: English
Publication Date: 12/2004
ISBN: 9787119033501,7119033506
Traditional Tibetan medicine, created by people living on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the "roof of the world," is becoming known worldwide. Though originating in China's Tibet, China herself has not published a comprehensive work on Tibetan medicine in English so far. This English monograph, the first of its kind ever published in China, deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of Tibetan medicine, including its history, fundamental theories, physiology, anatomy, diagnostics, clinical science, therapies, medical ethics, health care and materia medica.
Table of Contents
1. Tibetan Medicine
1.1 Time-Honored History
1.1.1 Emergence (Remote Antiquity-6th Century AD)
1.1.2 Period of Consolidation (6th-gth Centuries)
1.1.3 Period of Development and Contention (Mid 9th-Mid 17tCenturies)
1.1.4 The Flourishing Period (Mid 17th-Mid 20th Centuries)
1.1.5 Period of Regeneration (after 1951)
1.2 Theoretical System of Tibetan Medicine
1.2.1 Theory of Three Factors
1.2.2 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology
1.2.3 Etiological Theory
1.2.4 Embryology
1.3 Diagnostics
1.3.1 Interrogation
1.3.2 Color inspection
1.3.3 Urinalysis
1.3.4 Pulse-Taking
1.3.5 Other Diagnostic Techniques
1.4 Clinical Medicine
1.4.1 Rlung Diseases
1.4.2 Mkhris pa Diseases
1.4.3 Badkan Diseases
1.4.4 Indigestion
1.4.5 Edema
1.4.6 Febrile Syndromes
1.4.7 Common Cold
1.4.8 Diseases of the Eye
1.4.9 Diseases of the Ear
1.4.10 Diseases of the Nose
1.4.11 Diseases of the Mouth
1.4.12 Diseases of the Heart
1.4.13 Diseases of the Lung
1.4.14 Diseases of the Liver
1.4.15 Diseases of the Spleen
1.4.16 Diseases of the Kidney
1.4.17 Diseases of the Stomach
1.4.18 Diseases of the Small Intestine
1.4.19 Diseases of the Large Intestine
1.4.20 Diseases of the Bladder
1.4.21 Constipation
1.4.22 Diseases of the Male External Genitalia
1.4.23 Diseases of the Female External Genitalia
1.4.24 Asthma
1.4.25 Vomiting and Diarrhea
1.4.26 Yellow Fluid Diseases
1.4.27 Common Gynecological Diseases
1.4.28 Intoxication
1.4.29 Epilepsy (Dian and Xian)
1.4.30 Pediatrical Diseases
1.5 Rich and Colorful Treatment
1.5.1 Medication
1.5.2 Instrumental Therapy
1.5.3 Bloodletting
1.5.4 Moxibustion Therapy
1.5.5 Emetics
1.5.6 Rubbing and Compress Therapies
1.5.7 Medicinal Bathing
1.5.8 Enema Therapy
1.5.9 Nasal Medication
1.5.10 Dietotherapy
1.5.11 Daily Life and Macrobiotics
1.6 Medical Ethics
2. Tibetan Pharmacy
2.1 A Brief History of Tibetan Pharmacy
2.1.1 Enlightenment Period (Antiquity-6th Century AD)
2.1.2 Laying Foundation Period (629-846 AD)
2.1.3 Formation Period (846-1271)
2.1.4 Development Period (1279-1642)
2.1.5 Prosperous Period (1642-1682)
2.1.6 Stagnant Period (1750-1950)
2.1.7 Rejuvenation Period (After 1951)
2.2 Theoretical System of Tibetan Pharmacology
2.2.1 Classes of Materia Medico Based on Taste
2.2.2 Action
2.3 Resources of Tibetan Materia Medico
2.3.1 Natural Conditions of the Qinghal-Tibet Plateau
2.3.2 The Resources of Materia Medica of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateal
2.3.3 Flora in Tibetan Materia Medica
2.3.4 Relationship Between Vegetation Types and Resources oTibetan Materia Medica
2.3.5 Features of Plants Used
2.3.6 Imported Resources of Tibetan Materia Medica
2.4 Collection and Processing of Tibetan Materia Medico
2.4.1 Collection in Proper Seasons
2.4.2 Collection at Optimal Time
2.4.3 Selection and Drying
2.4.4 Differentiating Old and New
2.4.5 Detoxication by Processing
2.4.6 Compounding Based on Different Disorders
2.5 Drug Forms of Tibetan Materia Medico
2.5.1 Powder
2.5.2 Pill or Bolus
2.5.3 Paste
2.5.4 Decoction
2.5.5 Medicinal Wine
2.6 Present Status of Research
2.6.1 Investigation on Resources of Tibetan Materia Medico
2.6.2 Investigation on Exploitation and Utilization
2.7 Classification of Tibetan Materia Medico
2.7.1 Common Mineral Materia Medica
2.7.2 Common Plant Materia Medico
2.7.3 Common Animal Materia Medica
3. Sman thong, the Gem of Tibetan Medicine
3.1 History of Sman thong
3.1.1 Materials for Preparation of Sman thong
3.1.2 Contents of Sman thang
3.1.3 Colors Used
3.1.4 Captions of Sman thang
3.1.5 Investigation of Medical History and Literature
3.2 Contents of Sman thang
3.3 Comparative Studies on Different Editions of Sman thangs
3.3.1 Publication of Sman thang Atlas
3.3.2 The Titles of the Atlas Publications of Tibetan Medical
3.3.3 The Total Number of Sman thang in the Series
3.3.4 Analysis of Some Specificities of Medical Tangkhas
3.3.5 About the Original set of Tibetan Medical Tangkha Series
3.4 The Value of Sman thang
4. Important Ancient Physicians and Medical Works
4.1 Important Ancient Physicians
4.2 Main Medical Works
5. Studies on Tibetan Medicine Outside China
5.1 Tibetan Medicine Outside China
5.1.1 Major Representatives
5.1.2 Important Organizations of Tibetan Medicine
5.1.3 International Conferences on Traditional Medicine
5.1.4 Academic Publications on Tibetan Medicine
5.2 Dissemination of and Studies on Sman thang Outside China
Appendix I. Transliteration of Tibetan Alphabet (T.V. Wylie System)
Appendix II. Chronological Table
Index I. Names of Persons
Index II. Place, Institution, and Related Names
Index III. Publications
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1.2.3 Etiological Theory
Formed when Buddhism first flourished, Tibetan medicine is unique in itsrecognition of the causes of disease, with an ethnic flavor, as well as a religiouscoloring, thus forming a unique theory of etiology. There are several methods of classification. A theory holds that diseases occur only under three conditions, ieorig in, accumulation and induction. This is called the theory of external causes. On the origin, it is claimed that the seasons, the five sensory organs, anddaily life are closely related. Any reverse, deficiency, exuberance of an elementcan become the origin of a disease. For instance, season refers to cold, heat and rain. When these three are less than normal, then this is a deficiency; when they are in surplus, then, it is excess. Opposite refers to heat appearing in the coldseason, cold appearing in the hot season, and drought appearing in the rainyseason; these are all opposites. Or, in other words, they are the origin of diseases. This is quite similar to the six-excessiveness theory of etiology in TCM. The five sensory organs are responsible for special sensation, namely, theeyes for seeing, the ears for hearing, the nose for smelling and the tongue fortasting. When stimuli are optimal, then, no disease would happen. Any deficientor excessive stimulus m either too far, too near, over-stimulation or in aparadoxical form that cannot be tolerated by the organism forms a reverse

Traditional Tibetan medicine is a time-honored medical knowledge systemcreated mainly by the people inhabiting the Himalaya Mountains and the QinghalTibet Plateau region through a long course of experience in fighting againstdisease and preserving good health. Naturally, the provenance of Tibetan medi-cine should originate from Tibet, but Tibetan medicine is also an integral part oftraditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a whole. Ironically, due to complex historical reasons, for a long time, Tibetan medicine didn't arouse due attentionand interest in inland China. Before 1949, no works on Tibetan medicine hadappeared in China, and there were no academic papers published either. Over the last three decades, people in China, including the Tibetans them-selves, have begun to pay close attention to Tibetan medicine. A number ofhigh-quality academic papers have been published, some of them exerting greatinfluence in the pertinent fields, arousing interest among all of those closely involved in the field of Tibetology. The Sman thang Series of hanging scrolls with amedical theme, for instance, was first published in China in the mid-1980s inboth Tibetan-Chinese and Tibetan-English versions, marking a new epoch in the study of Tibetan medicine in China. Of course, due to the lack of experience and constraints at the academic level, these publications are certainly not perfect. Yet, the project plays a pioneering role in expediting the pace of China's efforts tocatch up with the study in this field internationally.
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