Listening to Rain on the Water

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 A Stranger in a Foreign Land 
Chapter 2 Three Pairs of Major Opposing Factors in Conrad’s Work 
The Virtual and the Real in Narcissus— The Nigger of the “Narcissus” 
Sea without Land— Typhoon 
Civilization and Primitiveness in Darkness— Heart of Darkness 
Crossing the Shadow Line— The Shadow-Line 
Death under the Shadow— The Secret Agent 
Crime and Punishment under Western Eyes— Under Western Eyes 
Impact of Four National Cultural Areas on Three Pairs of Main Opposing Factors in Conrad’s Subject Matter 
Chapter 3 John Cheever’s Creative Techniques in His Short Novels 
Narrow Background 
Non-dramatic Plots 
Incomplete Endings 
Included in the System— Non-personalization of Characters 
Cheever and Chekhov 
Biography of John Cheever 
Chapter 4 The Scars of Hemingway 
Transfer of Scars 
Hemingway’s Prescription for Trauma 
What Hurts Hemingway? 
Chapter 5 Contemporary British Female Novelists 
Chapter 6 Artistic Technique: “Black Humor” 
Subject Matter 
Plot and Character 
The Authors’Attitude toward Themselves and Their Readers
Stream of Consciousness 
Mobilization of Scientific Concepts 
Rhetoric and Grammar
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The slightly plaintive mood is reflected between the lines of Cheever's novels.People survive out of fear of death, and die for fear oflife.In fact, the burdens of daily life are just tragedies.But Cheever did not write tragic stories.ln O Youth and Beauty!the protagonist Cais is killed by his wife Louise.But this kind of behavior-murdering one's husband-is different from any sort of classic tragedy like Medea as written by the Greek writer Euripides, Tess of the D'Urbervilles in Hardy's great novel, or The Secret Agent by Conrad.The behavior of Louise is funny and boring.In the past, Cais was an amateur hurdler.Being middle-aged, his elegant athletic demeanor seems incongruous.But at a neighbor's party, he insists on hurdling the sofa.He lets his wife shoot a gun to act as the starting gun.As a result, his wife kills him. 
Tragedy is the outcome ofloving life, and is the conflict between opposite ideas" (Hegel's theory of tragedy).This kind oflove and ideas are just what characters in the work of Cheever lack.Engels thinks: Historical necessity and reality are in tragic conflict because neither is possible to realize.Cais's requirement is unrelated to any historical necessity.Leo Braudy said in the Harvard Guide to Contemporary American Writing:As a recognized form, the "New Yorker" novel tries to sublimate momentary emotion and embody all indvidual and social bodies.But, political and historical factors are often not considered."
Listening to Rain on the Water