A History of Chinese Confucianism

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Table of Contents
Chapter One Introduction
I. Religious Beliefs Before Confucianism
II. The Tentative Yin-Yang Theory Before Confucianism
III. Political Beliefs Before Confucianism
IV. Philosophical Schools Contemporary with Confucianism
V. Origins of Confucianism
VI. Essential Features of Confucian Civilization

Chapter Two Master Kong and the Founding of Confucianism
I. Introduction
II. On Heaven and Spirits
11I. On Government by Virtue
IV. On Rites and Rectification of Names
V. On Humanity and the Cultivation of One's Virtues
VI. On the Doctrine of the Mean
VII. On Knowledge
VIII. On Education
IX. The Evolution of Master Kong's Thinking on Rites, Rectification of Names, Humanity and the Mean
X. Early Explications and Spread of Confucianism by Master Kong's Disciples

Chapter Three The Five Confucian Classics
I. Introduction
II. The Book of Changes
In. The Book of History
IV. The Book of Songs
V. The Book of Rites
VI. The Spring and Autumn Annals

Chapter Four Divisions and Development of Confucianism During the Warring States Period
I. Introduction 
II. Zizhang, One Who Respected Worthies and Tolerated All People
III. Yan Yuan, Devout Follower of Master Kong's Doctrine
IV. Qidiao, Man of Great Wisdom~ and Courage
V. Yuezheng Who Has Been Little Known About
VI. Zisi, Pioneer of the Zisi-Meng Ke School
VII. Master Meng, Co-founder of Confucianism
1. Introduction
2. On Mind, Human Nature and Humanity
3. On Virtue Cultivation
4. On Politics and Government
5. On Economy
VIII. Master Xun, Naturalistic Confucianist
1. Introduction
2. On Human Nature
3. On Heaven and Man
4. On Rites and Law
5. On Cognition
6. On Society and History

Chapter Five The Establishment of the Dominant Position of Confucianism and Its Amalgamtion with Other Thoughts in the Han Dynasty 
I. Introduction
II. Dong Zhongshu, Leader of the Han Confucianists
1II. The Controversy on Confucian Classics
IV. Prognostication Texts and Apocrypha, and Their Criticism by Some Scholars
1. General Ideas on Prognostication and Apocrypha
2. Popularization of the Concepts of Visitations, Prodigies, Omens and Portents
3. Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall and the Development of Prognostication and Apocrypha
4. Criticism of Prognostication Texts and Apocryphal Writings by Some Ancient-Script Classicists
V. Wang Chong, Philosopher of Naturalism

Chapter Six The Decline of the Orthodox Confudanism and the Rise of Neo.Taoism-During the Period of the Wei-Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties
I. Introduction 
II. He Yan and Wang Bi, Founders of Neo-Taoism
III. Ruan Ji and Ji Kang, Representatives of the Seven Worthies of
Bamboo Groves
IV. Xiang Xiu and Guo Xiang Who Advocated the Principle of Self-
Transformation of Things 
V. Pei Wei and His Maintenance of Confucianism
VI. The Mutual Dispe!ling and Fusion of Confucianism, Taoism and
Buddhism During the Northern and Southern Dynasties

Chapter Seven The Revival of Confucianism During the Sui and Tang Dynasties
I. Introduction
II. Confucianism of the Sui Dynasty 
1. The Situation Unfavorable to Confucianism
2. Wang Tong Who Tried to Revive Confucianism
3. Confucianism in the Early Tang Dynasty arid the Compilation of
Rectified Interpretations of the Five Classics
1. Confucianism in the Early Tang Dynasty
2. The Compilation of Rectified Interpretations of the Five Classics
IV. Han Yu, Forerunner of Neo-Confucianism 
V.Li Ao, Way Paver of Neo-Confucianism
VI. Liu Zongyuan~ and Liu Yuxi, Philosophers with Materialistic Ideas

Chapter Eight Neo-Confudanism During the Northern Song Dynasty I.Introduction
I/.The Three Masters of Early Song, First Flowering of the 11th Century Neo-Confucianism
HI. Zhou Dunyi, Pioneer of Neo-Confucianism
IV. Shao Yong and His Studies of Emblems and Numbers
V. Zhang Zai, Materialistic Neo-Confucianist
VI. Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi, Exponents of the Learning of Nature and Principle
VII. Neo-Confucianism of the Post-Chengs Period
VIII. Wang Anshi, Confucian Reformer

Chapter Nine Development of Neo-Confudanism During the Early and Mid-Southern Song Dynasty

Chapter Ten 
Chapter Eleven
Chapter Twelve
Chapter Tirteen
Chapter Fourteen
Chapter Fifteen
Chapter Sixteen
Chapter Seventeen
Chapter Eighteen
Chapter Nineteen
Chapter Twenty
Chapter Twenty-One
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So the master was in fact referring to those sages of ancient times。such as Yao,Shun,Yu,King Tang,King Wen.King Wu,and the Duke of Zhou,when he mentioned the SO-called persons who were bom wise.In life.there were no such sages.He said, “Nowadays.I cannot see a sage;1 will be satisfied if I Can see superior men.”Though he once said.“Heaven has endowed me with virtues”,on more occasions he remarked,“Neglect of virtue cultivation,disregard for learning,reluctance to move towards righteousness and failure in removing one’s fault-these are the things that trouble me very much.”(ibid:116) He particularly stressed learning after one’S birth,saying,“I am not a man bom with knowledge.I am one who is fond of ancient studies and gains knowledge through diligent and hard work.”(ibid:120)“If one follows faithfully the principle of humanity,but is not fond of learning,he will be easily deceived.If one loves to exercise his wisdom but is not fond of learning.he will have the defect of pretentiousness and inconsistency.1f one loves honesty but is not fond of learning,he will be easily controlled and hurt.If one loves straightforwardness but is not fond of learning,he will be biting and offending.If one loves courageousness but IS not tond ot learning,he cannot help making trouble and inviting disasters.If one loves fmnness but is not fond of learning,he will be reckless and extravagant.”
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