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A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (Chinese Edition) [Paperback]

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Author: Zhao Yuanren;
Page: 855
Publication Date: 12/2011
ISBN: 9787100087391
Details
A Grammar of Spoken Chinese
Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES
PREFACE
USAGES OF THIS BOOK
1.Characters Used
2.Glossing
3.List of Symbols
4.Abbreviated Characters
5.Abbreviated References to Frequently Cited Works
6.Abbreviations for Frequently Occurring
Morphemes and Grammatical Terms

Chapter 1 IN FRODUCTION
1.1.Grammar
1.2.Spoken Chinese
1.3.Phonology

Chapter 2 THE SENTENCE
2.1.General Observations
2.2.Minor Sentences
2.3.Structure of the Full Sentence
2.4.The Grammatical Meaning of Subject and Predicate
2.5.The Logical Predicate
2.6.Subject and Predicate as Question and Answer
2.7.The Full Sentence as Made Up of Minor Sentences
2.8.Types of Subjects
2.9.Types of Predicates
2.10.Full Sentence (S-P) Predicates
2.11.Compound Sentences
2.12.Complex Sentences
2.13.Pivotal Constructions
2.14.Planned and Unplanned Sentences

Chapter 3 WORD AND MORPHEME
3.1.General
3.2.Free and Bound Forms
3.3.Prosodic Aspects
3.4.Substitution and Separation
3.5.Words in Functional Frames
3.6.The Word as a Unit of Meaning
3.7.Word Identity and Morpheme Identity
3.8.Definitions and Tests for the Syntactic Word
3.9.Synoptic Tables of Word-Like Units

Chapter 4 MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES
4.1.General
4.2.Reduplication
4.3.Prefixes
4.4.Suffixes
4.5.Infixes

Chapter 5 SYNTACTICAL TYPES
5.1.Expressions and Constructions
5.2.Coordination
5.3.Subordination
5.4.Verb-Object (V-O) Constructions
……
Chapter 6 COMPOUNDS
Chapter 7 PARTS OF SPEECH SUBSTANTIVES
Chapter 8 VERBS AND OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
SYNOPSIS OF TONAL SPELLING
Sample Pages Preview
3.8.2. Paradigmatic Definition : Bound Words. If we make exceptions of such elements as final particles in the definition of a word by pause groups, what are the general considerations from which to decide on the word status of bound forms? Here the factor of versatility (which is not necessary for free but restricted words like 磕e keh 'cracks open between one's frnt teeth and 眠 mian 'stops feeding ... ') becomes an important criterion. As a first approximation to a paradigmatic definition, we can define a (bound or free) word as a minimum form which has unlimited versatility in combination with a certain form class or form classes. For example, 天 tian 6sky, heaven F is a noun and can be followed by any verb or preceded by any adjective or transitive verb. As 'day' it is a measure and bound, but it can follow any determinative, that is, a demonstrative or a numeral, as 那天 ney tian 6that day', 三百六十天 sanbae liowshyrwuu tian 6365 days'. Hence tian in either meaning and function is a word in this sense. On the other hand, 春 chuen spring' B occurs in 春天 chuen.tian spring', 春分 chuenfen 'vernal equinox', 春风 chuen feng 'spring wind', 春宫 chuengong 'pornographic painting', 春不老 chuen.bulao '(in) spring-not-tough,-a vegetable like mustard green', 立春 lihchuen 'establish-spring,-one of the 24 seasons of the solar year, beginning on or about February 5', 开春 kaichuen 'when spring opens,-next New Year. It is versatile, but not unlimitedly so, and its occurrence has to be lexically defined. On the other hand, 完 wan finishes' F can follow any substantive as a predicative verb, as in 他还没完呐。 Ta hair mei wan. n.e. ‘He hasn't finished yet.', in contrast with 毕 bih finishes B,which occurs only in 毕业 bihyeh 6finishes course of study,-gradu-ates', 毕竟 bihjinq finally', 完毕 wanbih 'is completed', and a very few other compounds. The criterion of versatility will apply to final particles, which have unlimited combination with phrases and sentences of certain types and, as we have seen (sec.3.3.2.) a separate part of speech, which by definition is a class of words of a certain function.
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