The Early History of China' Patrol Inspection System in the Ming Dynasty

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Xiu Xiaobo, history Xiu originally graduated from the Department of History, Hangzhou University (today's Zhejiang University) in 1982. He has held teaching positions in jilin University and other universities, and has worked at the Institute of Modern History Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Currently, Xiu serves as a permanent member of the China Research Society on Clean Government and Rule of Law. Xiu's major publications include Biography of Wen Tianxiang and Merchants from Central and WestAsia During the Yuan Dynasty. He participated in the compilation of The Compendium of Chinese History and Dictionary for Zhouyi.
Table of Contents
1 Basic Prinaples
2 Personnel Selection
3 Speaal Inspections (1)
4 Speaal Inspections (2)
5 Comprehensive Inspections(1)
6 Comprehensive Inspections(2)
7 Work Rules (1)
8 Work Rules (2)
9 Internal Management
10 Performance Appraisal
Appendix I: Glossary
Appendix II:Index
Appendix III: List of Emperors of the Ming
Dynasty (1368-1644)
Sample Pages Preview
5. Inspection tours
  In the sixth year of Emperor Hongwu's reign (1373), the imperial edict stated that during inspection tours, inspectors should evaluate the performance oflocal officials and recommend the outstanding ones.
  In the first year of Emperor Yongle's reign (1403), the imperial edict stated: The performance of officials who have worked for six months or longer in prefectural, sub-prefectural and county governments should be evaluated by patrolinspectors and officials from the provincial surveillance commissions. Whether they are self-disciplined or corrupt should be truthfully reported to higher authorities.
  In the lOth year of Emperor Xuande's reign (1435), the following was petitioned for and approved by the throne: In regional military commissions, garrisons and battalions outside the capitality, the performance ofprincipal officials' assistants and officials possessing decision-making power should be evaluated by patrol inspectors and officials from the provincial surveillance commissions. Those who are found to be inferior in character or ability should be sent to the Ministry ofPersonnel for punishment.
  In the first year of the Zhengtong Era of Emperor Yingzong (1436), after deliberation and upon imperial approval, patrolinspectors and offiaals from the provincial surveillance commissions began to use the standards for avil officials to evaluate the performance ofoffiaals in garrisons and battalions.
  In the first year of the Tianshun Era of Emperor Yingzong (1457), the following was petitioned for and approved by the throne: Every year, patrol inspectors should conscientiously evaluate the performance of officials holding office in local governments at all levels, Anyone found to have committed corruption or broken the law must be detained and questioned immediately 'lhose who are old, sick or weak should be sent to the Ministry of Personnel for settlement according to the law and conventions. As for officials who are exceptionally virtuous, self-disciplined and competent, when patrolinspectors conclude their inspection tours and return to the capital city, they should make a truthful report of such offiaals to competent authorities. The Ministry of Personnel should keep a record of these names so that when these officials complete their terms of office and go to the ministry for performance appraisal, they can be promoted to higher posts. If an inspector is suspected of being unjust or distorting the truth during a performance appraisal, the case should be reported to the central government according to the law.
The Early History of China' Patrol Inspection System in the Ming Dynasty