FEEDBACK

50 Classical Chinese Yuan Qu with Chinese-English Interpretations

Price: $10.25 $7.20 (Save $3.05)
Quantity:
Add to Wishlist

Author: Gao Min; Wang Yigao;
Language: Chinese, English
Page: 270
Publication Date: 06/2014
ISBN: 9787550506015
Publisher: Dalian Press
Table of Contents
元好问 Yuan Haowen 
人月圆·卜 居外家东园 (重冈已隔红尘断) 
TUNE: MAN AND MOON 
Moving to My Mother’s East Garden 
“ Hill on hill keeps apart the vanity fair” 
小圣乐·骤雨打新荷 (绿叶阴浓) 
TUNE: MINOR SACRED MUSIC 
Sudden Shower Beating on New Lotus Leaves 
“ Green leaves casting deep shade” 
杨果 Yang Guo 
小桃红·采莲女 (满城烟水月微茫) 
TUNE: RED PEACH BLOSSOMS 
The Lotus Gatherer 
“ The dimming moon o’er mist—veiled town and water looms” 
杜仁杰 Du Renjie · 
耍孩儿·庄家不识构阑 (风调雨顺民安乐) 
TUNE: PLAYING THE CHILD 
A Peasant Knows Not the Theatre 
“ People live happy when in time blows wind and falls rain” 
商挺 Shang Ting 
潘妃曲 (带月披星担惊怕) 
TUNE: SONG OF PRINCESS PAN 
“ Shivering with fright” 
刘秉忠 Liu Bingzhong 
干荷叶 (干荷叶) 
TUNE: DRIED LOTUS LEAVES 
“ Lotus leaves dried” 33 
陈草庵 Chen Cao’an 
山坡羊·叹世 (晨鸡初叫) 
TUNE: SHEEP ON THE SLOPE 
O World! 
“ At dawn cock crows” 
关汉卿 Guan Hanqing 
沉醉东风·别情 (咫尺的天南地北) 
TUNE: INTOXICATED IN EAST WIND 
Farewell Song 
“ We stand so near yet we’ll be poles apart soon” 
四块玉·闲适 (南亩耕) 
TUNE: FOUR PIECES OF JADE 
Life of Easy Leisure 
“ Having tilled the southern field” 
杂剧《窦娥冤》第三折选段 (没来由犯王法) 
Dou E as Victim of Injustice (The following is from Act III) 
“ Of law breaking I never dreamt” 
白朴 Bai Pu 
天净沙 
TUNE: SUNNY SAND 
沉醉东风·渔夫 (黄芦岸白渡口) 
Fisherman 
“ The river shore overgrown with yellow reed” 
姚燧 Yao Sui 
凭阑人·寄征衣 (欲寄征衣君不还) 
TUNE: LEANING ON BALUSTRADE 
The Winter Garment 
“ If I send winter garment to thee” 
王和卿 Wang Heqing 
醉中天·咏大蝴蝶 (挣破庄周梦) 
TUNE: A DRINKER’S SKY 
Song of a Huge Butterfly 
“ Breaking a philosopher’s dream” 
卢挚 Lu Zhi 
沉醉东风·秋景 (挂绝壁枯松倒倚) 
TUNE: INTOXICATED IN EAST WIND 
Autumn 
“ The frowning cliff thrusts out a bending ancient pine” 
马致远 Ma Zhiyuan 
天净沙·秋思 (枯藤老树昏鸦) 
TUNE: SUNNY SAND 
Autumn Thoughts 
“ Over old trees wreathed with rotten vines fly crows” 
四块玉·叹世 (两鬓皤) 
TUNE: FOUR PIECES OF JADE 
O World! 
“ Grey turns my hair” 
夜行船·秋思 (蛩吟罢一觉才宁贴) 
TUNE: NIGHT—SAILING BOAT 
Autumn Thoughts 
“ When crickets sing, I can sleep well” 
王实甫 Wang Shifu 
《西厢记》第四本第三折《哭宴》选段(不忧文齐福不齐) 
Weeping at the Farewell Feast (From Act Ⅲof Scene Ⅳ, Western Wingroom) 
“I care not if your talent won’t build a career” 
十二月过尧民歌·别情 (自别后遥山隐隐) 
FROM A YEAR’S END TO FOLKLORE 
Parting Grief 
“ Since we parted, far—flung hills disappear with you” 
薛昂夫 Xue Angfu 
塞鸿秋 (功名万里忙如燕) 
TUNE: AUTUMN SWAN ON FRONTIER 
“ Busy for far—flung fame as swallows in flight” 
张养浩 Zhang Yanghao 
山坡羊·潼关怀古 (峰峦如聚) 116 
TUNE: SHEEP ON THE SLOPE 
Thinking of the Past on My Way to Tong Pass 
“ Peaks like brows knit” 
真氏 Zhen 
解三酲 (奴本是明珠擎掌) 
TUNE: THRICE DRUNK AND SOBERED 
“ I was a bright pearl in my parents’ palm” 
张可久 Zhang Kejiu 
折桂令·西陵送别 (画船儿载不起离愁) 
TUNE: PLUCKING LAUREL BRANCH 
Farewell at the West Ferry 
“ Our parting grief outweighs your painted boat” 
喜春来·永康驿中 (荷盘敲雨珠千颗) 
TUNE: WELCOME TO SPRING 
At an Inn in Yongkang 
“ Rain beats on lotus leaves drop on drop” 
徐再思 Xu Zaisi 
朝天子·西湖 (里湖,外湖) 
TUNE: SKYWARD SONG 
West Lake 
“ In inner lake and outer lake” 
周德清 Zhou Deqing 
折桂令 (倚蓬窗无语嗟呀) 
TUNE: PLUCKING LAUREL BRANCH 
“ Leaning on windowsill, speechless I sigh” 
满庭芳·看岳王传 (披文握武) 
TUNE: COURTYARD FULL OF FRAGRANCE 
Reading the Biography of General Yue 
“ By word and sword” 
钟嗣成 Zhong Sicheng 
醉太平·落魄 (之一)(绕前街后街) 
TUNE: INTOXICATED IN TIME OF PEACE 
A Beggar—scholar (Ⅰ) 
“I go along the street ” 
醉太平·落魄 (之二)(风流贫最好) 
TUNE: INTOXICATED IN TIME OF PEACE 
A Beggar—scholar (Ⅱ) 
“ The poor may be happy in love” 
赵善庆 Zhao Shanqing 
折桂令·湖山堂 (八窗开水月交光) 
TUNE: PLUCKING LAUREL BRANCH 
Hall of Lake and Hill 
“ Outside eight windows water dissolves in moonlight” 
张鸣善 Zhang Mingshan 
普天乐·嘲西席 (讲诗书,习功课) 
TUNE: UNIVERSAL JOY 
To a Funny Tutor 
“ You teach pupils to read and write” 
睢景臣 Sui Jingchen 
哨遍·高祖还乡 (社长排门告示) 
TUNE: WHISTLING AROUND 
Emperor’s Home—coming 
“ The village chief announces from door to door” 
乔吉 Qiao Ji 
山坡羊·冬日写怀 (朝三暮四) 
TUNE: SHEEP ON THE SLOPE 
Thoughts in Winter 
“ You change along” 
小桃红·效联珠格 (落花飞絮隔朱帘) 191 
TUNE: RED PEACH BLOSSOMS 
Tip—to—toe Style 
“ Petals fall with willow down outside the screen” 
贯云石 Guan Yunshi 
塞鸿秋·代人作 (战西风几点宾鸿至) 
TUNE: AUTUMN SWAN ON FRONTIER 
Written for a Friend 
“ In the west breeze shiver a few dots of wild geese” 
红绣鞋 (挨着靠着云窗同坐) 
TUNE: EMBROIDERED RED SHOES 
“ To you I cling, on you I lean” 
查德卿 Zha Deqing 
柳营曲·金陵故址 (临故国) 
TUNE: SONG OF WILLOW CAMP 
The Ancient Capital at Jinling 
“ Coming to ancient capital” 
唐毅夫 Tang Yifu 
一枝花·怨雪 (不呈六出祥) 
TUNE: A SPRIG OF FLOWERS 
Complaint Against Snow 
“ Is snow of any good·” 
班惟志 Ban Weizhi 
一枝花·秋夜闻筝 (透疏帘风摇杨柳阴) 
TUNE: A SPRIG OF FLOWERS 
The Zither Heard on an Autumn Night 
“ On window screen the breeze sways shadows of willow trees” 
宋方壶 Song Fanghu 
山坡羊·道情 (青山相待) 
TUNE: SHEEP ON THE SLOPE 
A Carefree Dream 
“ Blue hills greet and love me” 
斗鹌鹑·送别 (落日遥岑) 
TUNE: FIGHT OF QUAILS 
Parting 
“ At sunset stretch out distant hills” 
兰楚芳 Lan Chufang 
四块玉·风情 
TUNE: FOUR PIECES OF JADE 
A Maid in Love 
无名氏一 Anon 1 
朝天子·志感 (不读书有权) · 
TUNE: SKYWARD SONG 
Reflections 
“ Those who can’t read are powerful” 
无名氏二 Anon 2 · 
红绣鞋 (一两句别人闲话) 
TUNE: EMBROIDERED RED SHOES 
“ You have heard one gossip or two” 
无名氏三 Anon 3 
庆宣和 (寄语寒窗老秀才) 
TUNE: CELEBRATION OF IMPERIAL REIGN 
“ I tell the old unsuccessful candidate” 
无名氏四 Anon 4 
折桂令 (叹世间多少痴人) 
TUNE: PLUCKING LAUREL BRANCH 
“ How many in the world are people unwise·” 
无名氏五 Anon 5 
叨叨令 (黄尘万古长安路) 
TUNE: CHATTERING SONG 
“ Yellow dust raised on royal road since olden days” 
无名氏六 Anon 6 
寄生草 (有几句知心话,本待要诉与他) 
TUNE: PARASITE GRASS 
“ I would impart to you what’s in my heart” 
无名氏七 Anon 7 
梧叶儿 
TUNE: PLANE LEAVES
Sample Pages Preview
Preface
2003年,本书作者团队在大连出版社的鼎力支持下,出版了《汉英双讲中国古诗100首》。这本书用中文和英文双语对100首中国古诗进行了较为详细的解读和赏析。该书出版后,受到读者的普遍好评,更受到学习汉语和到中国旅游的外国友人的青睐。在中国越来越开放并大步走向世界的今天,在多元文化交流与合作日益频繁的国际大背景下,用各种形式将中国文化推向世界,让世界人民更多地了解中国,无疑对推动中国进步和促进世界和谐发展有着不容忽视的积极意义。众所周知,中国古代诗歌形式最常见的有诗、词、曲三种。为了更加全面地介绍中国古代诗歌的面貌,本书作者团队再接再厉,继《汉英双讲中国古诗100首》出版之后,又编选翻译了《汉英双讲中国元曲50篇》。
中国的元代从公元1206年开始到1368年结束,时间跨度虽然只有一百多年,但却是中国文化的重要转折时期。从消极方面讲,元代是中国少数民族之一的蒙古族入主中原建立的政权,而蒙古族部落在入主中原之前尚处于奴隶制社会形态,他们对中原地区的统治带有明显的掠夺性质,使悠久的汉民族传统文化遭到一定程度的破坏。但从积极方面讲,元朝的统治又结束了中国土地上300多年来政权并立、疆土分裂的局面,使中国整体的疆域更加广大,国家趋于统一。地域的广大、国家的统一、多民族的杂居都促进了各民族人民之间的融合与交流,各民族文化也相互取长补短,彼此增进。
在元代,统治者把人分为四个等级:蒙古人、色目人、汉人和南人。空前严重的民族矛盾和阶级矛盾使得汉族文人知识分子,即所谓儒生,几乎遭受灭顶之灾。当时有“九儒十丐”的说法,儒生不仅失去了通过科举进身仕途的机会,而且被压在社会的最底层,其地位仅仅高于乞丐。政治和文化压迫迫使元代文人走向了人民大众。他们或隐逸山林,著书立说;或混迹江湖,与盗贼为伴;或进入市井勾栏,与戏子、歌女为伍。地位的低下使他们深切了解人民的苦难,自己的不幸又激发出他们的创作热情。他们不再为仕途的进退而苦恼,也就彻底抛却了束缚思想行为的枷锁,获得了相对独立的人格。比之前代文人,元代文人更敢于仗义执言,更敢于毫无顾忌地批评当权者。天翻地覆的社会变化,传统文化与人民大众的紧密结合,使元代文学的价值取向、审美情趣和艺术风格都迥异于前代,这就是元曲产生的时代背景。元曲在元代异军突起,取代了诗、词的地位而成为元代的代表性文学形式。
元曲的勃兴还与异族音乐输入中原有密切关系。金代、元代少数民族入主中原后,他们粗犷响亮、高昂激越的音乐旋律与原来伴随唐诗、宋词而流行的柔靡乐曲大异其趣。在元代初期社会动荡的艰难岁月中,人民的心中万分痛苦,他们需要呐喊,因而中原传统音乐的舒缓委婉与诗词格调的含蓄典雅已经无法满足人民精神的需求;而西域胡乐快速强烈的节奏,以及伴随胡乐的急切而直白的歌词才更符合人民的心理需求。由此,一种全新的流行乐曲和填词方式顺势而起,取代了原有的诗、词模式而成为元代文化的主流,这就是元曲。
元曲按地区分为南曲和北曲:南曲兴于南宋,流行于江浙一带;北曲兴于金元,随着元代蒙古族征服全国,逐渐由北而南风靡各地。元曲按种类分为散曲和剧曲(杂剧):散曲曲词是独立成章的,而剧曲则是戏剧中的唱段;散曲属于诗歌的范畴,而剧曲属于戏剧的范畴。散曲又分为小令、套曲和带过曲:小令是一段单一的曲词;套曲是由多个曲牌连缀成套的曲词;带过曲是在几段曲词之间起连接作用的曲词。
元曲的作家和作品数量都不能与中国诗歌高峰时期的唐诗和宋词相提并论。根据文献资料的统计,流传下来的元曲,有姓名可考的作者有200余人,作品有小令3800多首、套曲400多套、杂剧160多种。这个数量相对于几万首的唐诗宋词显得微不足道,但对于只有百余年历史的元代来说已经是相当可观了。
元曲与词有许多相同之处,同是发源于民间的文学,同是和乐填词、亦诗亦歌的形式。但是,元曲又与传统诗词大异其趣,其主要不同之处在于,元曲来自民间最底层,更贴近人民生活,因而语言犀利、明快、戏谑、生动,多用白话俗语,一反传统文人辞章的儒雅风格,更加自由开放,充满市井气息,是当时都市底层人民喜闻乐见的文学形式。
由于元曲都是随乐而歌的,所以每一首元曲通常都要标明它的乐调名称和曲牌。中国古代以宫、商、角(jue)、变徵(一说清角)、徵、羽、变宫为七声。乐调中以任何一个音声为主,即可构成一种调式。以宫声为主的调式称为“宫”,以其他六个音声中任何一声为主的调式都统称为“调”,合称为“宫调”。不同的宫调表达着不同的情感,或激昂雄壮,或缠绵忧伤,各有特色。但是我们现代人学习元曲已经不可能重现当时的曲调了,所以本书中不再标明每一首元曲作品的调式。
元曲也有曲牌,这和词有词牌一样。曲牌规定了每首曲的长短和句式。但是,曲和词不同的是,词常常有上下片,甚至多到三片或四片,就像我们现在一首歌曲常常有两段甚至三段或四段歌词一样,唱起来有回环往复的感觉。而曲却不分片,只有一段,称为单调。这是因为曲常常以叙事文学的形式出现,所以不方便重复歌唱。而且,词的用韵比较稀疏,可以隔行押韵,而曲的用韵密集,几乎句句用韵;词牌对词的句式、字数都有严格规定,不能随意更改,而曲牌则比较随意,允许作者根据需要适当改变句式,增加 衬字。
以上这些特点使得曲相对于词来说更加灵活,方便创作,易于理解,深得百姓的欢迎。
总之,中国诗歌发展到元代,诗、词、曲三种形式已经齐备。
后人常说“诗庄、词媚、曲俗”,意思是,诗比较典雅、严肃、庄重,多用来言志抒怀;词比较通俗、轻松、细腻,多用来表达情感;曲则更加诙谐戏谑、激昂慷慨,多用来鞭挞讽刺社会和世人心态。在元曲出现以后,中国古代诗歌的形式就没有更多新的变化了,只是在诗、词、曲三种形式中转换摇摆,所以有人说元曲是中国古代诗歌形式中最后的辉煌。
曲在元代出现,并随即达到高峰。但在当时的文人眼中,曲始终被认为是俗曲小调,难登大雅之堂,有地位的文人是不肯作曲而只愿意作诗填词的。随着元代社会渐渐趋于稳定,元曲的创作日渐减少,其锋芒也日渐消退,这也是元曲数量远逊于历代诗、词创作数量的原因之一。也正因为如此,元曲有着更加鲜明的时代特征,是元代文学的最高成就。清代末年的著名学者王国维先生因此总结说:“唐之诗,宋之词,元之曲,皆所谓一代之文学,而后世莫能继焉者也。”(见《宋元戏曲考•序》)鉴于元曲的重要价值和特殊形式,本书从流传至今的几千首元曲作品中精心遴选出50篇(套)作品,进行分析讲解,以满足中外读者学习中国古代诗歌的需求。本书中对每篇(套)元曲作品都进行了详细的文字注释(中文)、元曲英译(英文)和曲文赏析(中、英文),同时,对每位作者也有简略介绍(中、英文)。
北京大学资深教授、著名翻译家许渊冲先生一如既往地负责将本书所选50篇(套)元曲译成英文。同时,我们还聘请了北京交通大学教授钟良明先生担任本书的英文译著。两位先生都是德高望重、功底深厚、学有专长的英语教授,他们的辛勤工作为本书增光添色。
总之,本书全体编译者的最大心愿是,借助本书的出版,为推进中外文化交流,为向世界介绍中国文化和思想,为帮助中外朋友学习汉语和中国古代文学,为增进中国与世界各国人民之间的友谊、理解和合作,略尽自己的绵薄之力。
编 译 者The third of a series intended to introduce classical Chinese poetry, 50 Classical Chinese Yuan Qu with Chinese-English Interpretations follows 100 Classical Chinese Poems with Chinese-English Interpretationsand 50 Classical Chinese Ci with Chinese-English Interpretations, which, for their detailed annotations and insightful interpretations, have been accepted as success stories by their readers, especially by foreign tourists or Chinese language learners, thus helping China and its culture become better understood by the world, a task compatible with China’s furthered opening policy and the world’s being increasingly dependent on exchange and cooperation between cultures and nations. This book will be about Chinese classical Yuanqu, to fully meet our ambition to cover all the three Chinese poetry forms: shi, ci, and qu. As a consequence of an invasion into Central China and based on slaughter and plunder, the Yuan Dynasty represented the submission and rule of the major nationalities by a minor one, the Mongolian tribes, which had previously been practicing slavery, a rule that had to result in a cultural downturn and be a cultural transition in itself, with a history of only about a century (1206-1368). A good word for that dynasty is, however, it ended the 300-year chaos where China was broken into petty rivalry states, and started a new China with broadened territories, regained unification, and a larger number of nationalities. Naturally, these were conditions favorable for the various cultures to be exchanged, to remedy and to be remedied by one another, an essential part of that greater process in which the multitudinous tribes, races and nationalities fused into the one Chinese nation. Yuan saw the division of four classes: Mongolian, Semuren, Han, and Nan, a hierarchy that had to engender unprecedented class and national conflicts, of which intellectuals were the most miserable victims. Their misfortune originated in the abolishment of the Imperial Examination, which had formerly provided them access to official posts. Socially placed next to beggars and resenting political and cultural discrimination, they switched over to the common people, withdrawing into mountains to produce their scholarly works, or wandering over rivers and lakes enjoying their company with thieves and bandits, or plunging into the innermost lanes to befriend women singers and performers, a change that would soon be felt in their literary creation. No longer heartbroken by their blocked social ascent, they broke spiritual fetters, cast new thinking patterns, and developed new personalities. Compared with their predecessors, men of letters in Yuan displayed greater bravery in defending justice and were more outspoken in their criticism of people in power. Stunning social changes, inherent cultural tradition, and the easily available popular influence—it is these that explain the vast difference in value, aesthetic standpoint, and artistic style in the Yuan literature, where the popular quoccurs so prevailingly that it must have obscured the other two forms of poetry to become the one dominant literary genre for the time. To accompany their triumphant raids, the conquerors brought along their music, which, for its vigorous melody indicative of the hardihood of nomads, was in sharp contrast with its Central China counterpart, which, spiritually temperate and feeble, suited the previously dominating Tangshiand Songci. Such music, although alien at the time, found it fit to the sentiments of the native Chinese who had had so much of the physical hardship and political turmoil as to want to speak up in loud shouts and resent their euphemistic traditional music and decorous shi and ci, which were now far from sufficing expression of their mind. They soon found a new means in the alien music from Hu (i.e. Far Northwest), a music featuring strong beats and straightforward expression. And they formulated, shortly afterwards, new schemes for incorporating verse to the music to make up YuanSongs. In the passage of centuries, while the music part of these songs got lost in historical void, the verse part was left behind, known as Yuanqu, the predominating form of verse in the Yuan Dynasty. Regionally there are two types of qu, South and North, the former originating in the Southern Song Dynasty to become prevalent in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, the latter in the Jin and Yuan dynasties to grow increasingly popular from North to South alongside the Mongolian conquest. It again divides itself into sanqu(i.e. verse for songs each of which is independent) and juqu(i.e. verse for songs to comprise an opera). Sanquis a type of poetry but the other an element of the opera. Sanquis subdivided into xiaoling, taoqu, and daiguoqu, meaning, respectively, verse 1) to a single tune, 2) to one of a series of tunes as a tune suite, and 3) to a transitional tune within a number of tunes. With regard to the number of writers and quantity of works, Yuanqucan never be a match of Tang shiand Song ci, the golden peaks of Chinese poetry. Statistics show that there are about 200 authentic qucomposers, accounting for 3,800 pieces of xiaoling, 400 taoqu, and 160 juqu, which look rather bleak as compared to the tens of thousands pieces of Tang shiand Song ci, but are sort of consoling considering that this is a crop reaped within a mere century. Yuan qu and Song cihave a lot in common: they both originate in folk literature, are both the verse component of music, both to be read as poetry and played as song. The difference is that, belonging to the rank-and-file, Yuan quis sharp-, lucid- or cynical-toned, composed in oral speech of the day, full of folk sayings, smells a marketplace odor, and indicates a broadened individualism; it contrasts so sharply to the old-time works that it seems to have soon found it in popular favor.As verse for the song, quwas given two identifying tags: name of the melody to which musical sounds were arranged and name of the tune to which the verse was composed. In ancient China, gong, shang, jue, bianzhi (or qingjue), zhi, yu, and biangongwere names of the seven musical sounds. When gongwas to be the principal sound in the arrangement, the melody fell into the category gong, whereas any of the other six sounds was to be principal, the melody would alike be tagged diao. Since gong-diaothus represented form and capacity of the melody, as it varied, it gave expression to moods running all the way from foaming indignation to militant grandeur, from sentimental affection to dark melancholy.Alas, long lost was such music, so that modern learners will have to abide a book devoid of the faintest clue as to what those dismal or magnificent melodies are like.As is the case of Song ci, the tune dictates number of words in the verse and form of the line. They are different in that ci is often composed of 2, 3 or even 4 stanzas, like the modern song that comprises several stanzas to be sung repeatedly, whereas a piece of quis a single (mono-) verse. This feature of qusuits its narrative form, but is unfit for the words to be voiced repeatedly. Also, while ciis rhymed every two or few lines, quhas to be rhymed at the end of virtually each line. Again, while the citune restricts line form and the number of words, quis flexible as to be allowed to have its line form and number of words somewhat varied, as deemed necessary by the composer. Such liberty benefits qucreation and makes for easier understanding for the audience, to aid qu’s popular influence. Joining shiand ci, qucombines with them to constitute a homogeneous system of Chinese poetry. Critics in the ensuing ages have branded them, in that order, as majestic, courtly, and vulgar, meaning that shi, elegant, solemn, and elevated in style, suits expression of aspirations, ideals, and profound feelings, ci, with its comparatively easy text and a style that is brisk and entertaining, gives expression to sentimental emotions, whereas qu, popularly favored and playfully, ironically, or indignantly worded, is a ready means for social satire and depiction of mentality of the rank-and-file. Upon completion of these three forms, Chinese poetry sort of came to a standstill, to shift aimlessly from one to another, now and again. And this happened, say critics, only after quhad exhibited the afterglow. Even after quhad taken root, literary people were still regarding it with disdain, calling it vulgar melodies, unworthy of a place as art, and the well positioned, while continuing their love for shiand ci, never considered the composition of quworth their while. As Yuan approached its social stability, things were even worse: qurecorded declined production and its influence seemed to be spending itself. However, it is owing to its scanty quantity that it has been evaluated as a historical rarity, the sole means of expression for the time, and its most important literary achievement. “As did shiin Tang and ciin Song, qu in Yuan represents an age, to be succeeded by no counterpart in any other,” comments Wang Guowei, an eminent scholar in the Qing Dynasty, in his Preface to A survey of Opera Verse in Song and Yuan. Thus inspired, we selected 50 pieces from among several thousand, had them annotated, translated, and interpreted, and provided each with a short biographical introduction. Should this book have been given its merits, we largely owe them to Xu Yuanchong, a professor of distinction from Peking University, who allowed us to use his English versions of these verses, and to Zhong Liangming, a veteran professor of Beijing Jiaotong University, who agreed to render into English the rest of the book that required to be translated. May this little book be one more fruitful effort towards increased exchange between cultures and promoted learning of the Chinese language and literary classics. The Authors and Translators
You May Also Like

50 Classical Chinese Yuan Qu with Chinese-English Interpretations
$7.20